We demonstrate lensless diffractive microscopy using a tabletop source of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from high harmonic generation at 29 nm and 13.5 nm. High harmonic generation has been shown to produce fully spatially coherent EUV light when the conversion process is well phase-matched in a hollow-core waveguide. We use this spatial coherence for two related diffractive imaging techniques which circumvent the need for lossy imaging optics in the EUV region of the spectrum. Holography with a reference beam gives sub-100 nm resolution in short exposure times with fast image retrieval. Application of the Guided Hybrid Input-Output phase retrieval algorithm refines the image resolution to 53 nm with 29 nm light. Initial images using the technologically important 13.5 nm wavelength give 92-nm resolution in a 10-minute exposure. Straightforward extensions of this work should also allow near-wavelength resolution with the 13.5 nm source. Diffractive imaging techniques provide eased alignment and focusing requirements
as compared with zone plate or multilayer mirror imaging systems. The short-pulsed nature of the extreme ultraviolet source will allow pump-probe imaging of materials dynamics with time resolutions down to the pulse duration of the EUV.
High harmonic generation (HHG) is a useful source of coherent light in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region of the spectrum. However, both the conversion efficiency and the highest achievable photon energy have in the past been limited in the past by the inability to phase-match the frequency conversion process. In this paper, we summarize recent results on the development of new techniques for phase-matching the high-harmonic conversion process. We also summarize finding from three series of experiments that make use of the coherent EUV light generated using HHG: 1) probing of acoustic dynamics in materials; 2) monitoring of chemical dynamics at surfaces using photoelectron spectroscopy; and 3) time-resolved plasma imaging.
We present a simple setup for obtaining high resolution, sub-micron images using high harmonic generation (HHG) in a hollow-core waveguide as a light source. We demonstrate imaging with illumination at a wavelength of 30 nm using an all-reflective, double-multilayer mirror setup and a CCD camera as a recording device. For the magnifications of up to 50x used here, the all-reflective setup has advantages over zone plate microscopes because of the much larger working distances that allow for imaging of plasmas. This setup has also a throughput that is higher by at least a factor of three compared to zone-plate microscopes, and presents the additional advantage of preserving the temporal pulse width of the harmonics because diffractive optics are not used. This work demonstrates the feasibility of high-spatial-resolution, time-resolved, EUV imaging of plasmas and other objects using a tabletop compact light source.