A laser cladding system consisting of a direct diode laser with the flat-top beam profile and an off-axis powder injection nozzle has been used to fabricate Co-based (Satellite 6) metal matrix composite coatings reinforced by spherical-shaped WC particles. Non-porous coatings with the WC fraction of about 50 vol.% and a low dissolution of the WC particles in the matrix have been obtained. The heat input level affects the degree of WC dissolution and the matrix mean free path between the embedded WC particles. Comparative erosion tests between the metallic Satellite 6 and composite Satellite 6/WC coatings showed that the composite coatings exhibit a superior erosion resistance only at the oblique impingement condition. Generally, a low erosion resistance of the composite coatings at the normal impingement is mainly attributed to a very smooth interface between the spherical-shaped WC particles and the matrix alloy.
Presented in this article are the results of experiments carried out to determine the causes of braze cracking of dissimilar materials brazed with a ROFIN DL 020 high power diode laser with the use of additional powdered EN AW-1070A aluminium alloy to bond thin aluminium sheets with soft, low alloy DC04+ZE75/75 steel plate which was electrolytically coated with zinc on both sides. Presented are the results of metallographic, macroscopic, microscopic, diffractometric phase analyses of the weld joints. Metallurgical problems arising during processing as well as suggestions regarding technical aspects of laser brazing dissimilar materials in regards to their physical characteristics and chemical composition are explored.
The paper describes the application of single mode high power fiber laser (HPFL) for the welding of nickel based superalloy Inconel 625. Butt joints of Inconel 625 sheets 0,8 mm thick were laser welded without an additional material. The influence of laser welding parameters on weld quality and mechanical properties of test joints was studied. The quality and mechanical properties of the joints were determined by means of tensile and bending tests, and micro hardness tests, and also metallographic examinations. The results showed that a proper selection of laser welding parameters provides non-porous, fully-penetrated welds with the aspect ratio up to 2.0. The minimum heat input required to achieve full penetration butt welded joints with no defect was found to be 6 J/mm. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the joints are essentially equivalent to that for the base material.
The study of laser bead-on-plate welding of nickel based superalloy Rene 77 using single mode high power fiber laser has been undertaken to determine the effect of process parameters, such as laser power, welding speed and laser beam defocusing, on the weld geometry and quality. Non-porous and crack-free welds can be achieved for a relatively wide range of fiber laser welding parameters. The welding speed has a major effect on the weld aspect ratio. The laser beam defocusing significantly affects the weld bead geometry, the stability of the keyhole and pore formation. The transition from keyhole mode to conduction mode welding occurs between focal point position +2.0 mm and +4.0 mm. The high porosity was observed at the focal point position of +2.0 mm. The heat input higher than18 J/mm results to hot cracking in the heat affected zone (HAZ). Moreover, it was found that the welds with the weld aspect ratio higher than 1.5 contain cracks, which propagate from the HAZ into the weld metal.
The Surface Laser Alloying (SLA) process using High Power Diode Laser (HPDL) with rectangular beam spot and uniform energy distribution across the spot was investigated. The surface of substrate tool steel was alloyed with cobalt based powder injected directly to the weld pool. The parameters investigated were laser power, traveling speed and powder feeding rate. The results showed that it's possible to produce high quality surface layer alloyed with diode laser. Thickness of the alloyed layer is in a range from 0.7 up to 2.5 mm, and its micro hardness exceeds 1000 HV0.2.
In this paper, results of investigations concerning the influence of high power diode laser surface modification of titanium alloy TO4 on structure and properties of the top layer are presented. The results showed that it's possible to produce high quality top layer of 0.15 to 0.7 mm thick. The hardness of the top layer is up to 3100 HV0.2, and the hardness of substrate material is under 200 HV0.2.