The Networked Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (NISR) project integrates robotic resources into Composeable FORCEnet to control and exploit unmanned systems over extremely long distances. The foundations are built upon FORCEnet-the U.S. Navy's process to define C4ISR for net-centric operations-and the Navy Unmanned Systems Common Control Roadmap to develop technologies and standards for interoperability, data sharing, publish-and-subscribe methodology, and software reuse.
The paper defines the goals and boundaries for NISR with focus on the system architecture, including the design tradeoffs necessary for unmanned systems in a net-centric model. Special attention is given to two specific scenarios demonstrating the integration of unmanned ground and water surface vehicles into the open-architecture
web-based command-and-control information-management system of Composeable FORCEnet. Planned spiral development for NISR will improve collaborative control, expand robotic sensor capabilities, address multiple domains including underwater and aerial platforms, and extend distributive communications infrastructure for battlespace optimization for unmanned systems in net-centric operations.
The Mobile Detection Assessment Response System (MDARS) provides physical security for Department of Defense bases and depots using autonomous unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) to patrol the site while operating payloads for intruder detection and assessment, barrier assessment, and product assessment. MDARS is in the System Development and Demonstration acquisition phase and is currently undergoing developmental testing including an Early User Appraisal (EUA) at the Hawthorne Army Depot, Nevada-the world's largest army depot. The Multiple Resource Host Architecture (MRHA) allows the human guard force to command and control several MDARS platforms simultaneously. The MRHA graphically displays video, map, and status for each resource using wireless digital communications for integrated data, video, and audio. Events are prioritized and the user is prompted with audio alerts and text instructions for alarms and warnings. The MRHA also interfaces to remote resources to automate legacy physical devices such as fence gate controls, garage doors, and remote power on/off capability for the MDARS patrol units. This paper provides an overview and history of the MDARS program and control station software with details on the installation and operation at Hawthorne Army Depot, including discussions on scenarios for EUA excursions. Special attention is given to the MDARS technical development strategy for spiral evolutions.
Unmanned vehicles perform critical mission functions. Today, fielded unmanned vehicles have restricted operations as a single asset controlled by a single operator. In the future, however, it is envisioned that multiple unmanned air, ground, surface and underwater vehicles will be deployed in an integrated unmanned (and "manned") team fashion in order to more effectively execute complex mission scenarios. To successfully facilitate this transition from single platforms to an integrated unmanned system concept, it is essential to first develop the required base technologies for multi-vehicle mission requirements, as well as test and evaluate such technologies in tightly controlled field experiments. Under such conditions, advances in unmanned technologies and associated system configurations can be empirically evaluated and quantitatively measured against relevant performance metrics. A series of field experiments will be conducted for unmanned force protection system applications. A basic teaming scenario is: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) detect a target of interest on the ground; the UAVs cue unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) to the area; the UGVs provide on-ground evaluation and assessment; and the team of UAVs and UGVs execute the appropriate level of response. This paper details the scenarios and the technology enablers for experimentation using unmanned protection systems.
The mission of the Unmanned Systems Branch of SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego (SSC San Diego) is to provide network-integrated robotic solutions for Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) applications, serving and partnering with industry, academia, and other government agencies. We believe the most important criterion for a successful acquisition program is producing a value-added end product that the warfighter needs, uses and appreciates. Through our accomplishments in the laboratory and field, SSC San Diego has been designated the Center of Excellence for Small Robots by the Office of the Secretary of Defense Joint Robotics Program. This paper covers the background, experience, and collaboration efforts by SSC San Diego to serve as the "Impedance-Matching Transformer" between the robotic user and technical communities. Special attention is given to our Unmanned Systems Technology Imperatives for Research, Development, Testing and Evaluation (RDT&E) of Small Robots. Active projects, past efforts, and architectures are provided as success stories for the Unmanned Systems Development Approach.
The combination of Command and Control (C2) systems with Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) provides Integrated Force Protection from the Robotic Operation Command Center. Autonomous UGVs are directed as Force Projection units. UGV payloads and fixed sensors provide situational awareness while unattended munitions provide a less-than-lethal response capability. Remote resources serve as automated interfaces to legacy physical devices such as manned response vehicles, barrier gates, fence openings, garage doors, and remote power on/off capability for unmanned systems. The Robotic Operations Command Center executes the Multiple Resource Host Architecture (MRHA) to simultaneously control heterogeneous unmanned systems. The MRHA graphically displays video, map, and status for each resource using wireless digital communications for integrated data, video, and audio. Events are prioritized and the user is prompted with audio alerts and text instructions for alarms and warnings. A control hierarchy of missions and duty rosters support autonomous operations. This paper provides an overview of the key technology enablers for Integrated Force Protection with details on a force-on-force scenario to test and demonstrate concept of operations using Unmanned Ground Vehicles. Special attention is given to development and applications for the Remote Detection Challenge and Response (REDCAR) initiative for Integrated Base Defense.