Progress in nanotechnologies accelerated the polymer based photonics, where simple and cheap solutions often bring comparable and sometimes also novel interesting results. Good candidates are polymer photoresists and siloxane materials with unique mechanical and optical properties. We present laser lithography as efficient tool for fabrication of different three-dimensional (3D) structures embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes. Presented concept of PDMS based thin membranes with 3D structures works as an effective diffraction element for modification of radiation pattern diagram of light emitting diodes and changes also the angular photoresponse of photodiodes. All these results were demonstrated on two types of 3D structures – spheres arranged in cubic lattice and woodpile structure.
In this contribution, we present modification of far field of light emitting diode (LED) with implemented Fresnel structure in the LED surface. Fresnel structures were prepared in one-dimensional arrangement with two different foci f1 = 12.5 μm and f2 = 1 cm. Structures were etched directly in the LED emitting surface using electron beam lithography with the etched depth for the structure with f1 and f2 app. 200 nm and 400 nm, respectively. Due to application of these structures, LED far field narrowing was observed, which is documented by goniophotometer measurements. For the structure with f1 and f2, the intensity decrease for angles ±30° – ±50° is app. 3-4% and 5-6%, respectively, in comparison to the Lambertian profile.
Proc. SPIE. 10249, Integrated Photonics: Materials, Devices, and Applications IV
KEYWORDS: Lithography, Photonic devices, Mirrors, Two photon polymerization, Resonators, Waveguides, Optical properties, Polymers, Single mode fibers, Scanning electron microscopy, Photoresist materials, 3D metrology, Sensing systems
In this paper we demonstrate design and fabrication of two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ring resonators prepared by 3D laser lithography based on two photon polymerization. We used dip-in direct-laser-writing (DLW) optical lithography to fabricate 3D optical structures for optics and optoelectronics. Prepared structures are embedded in polydimethylsiloxane, which is well known silicon elastomer with unique mechanical and optical properties. This polymer structure allows to couple light directly from single mode optical fiber to the ring resonator structure, where polydimethylsiloxane creates cladding. Optical properties of prepared 2D and 3D ring resonators were investigated by measurement of transmission spectral characteristics.
In this paper, the fabrication method of waveguide structures and devices as ring resonators for different waveguide applications based on polymer material is presented. The structures were designed in computer-aided design (CAD) software and two-photon polymerization lithography system was used for preparation of desired devices. Morphological properties of prepared devices were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal microscope. Finally, we performed measurement of optical spectrum characteristics in telecommunication wavelengths range. The results corresponds to calculated parameters. Final polymer devices are promising for lab on a chip and sensing applications due to unique elastic and chemical properties.
This contribution presents implementation of one dimensional Fresnel structure in surface emitting part of the AlGaAs/GaAs multi-quantum well light emitting diode (LED).The structure consists in drilled lines distributed with square root of distance in order to obtain structures with different foci. First structure was prepared by electron beam lithography and etched directly in the emitting surface using reactive-ion etching. Second structure was prepared in the surface of thin PDMS membrane that can be stack directly on the emitting surface. The membrane is fabricated using dip in laser lithography combined with PDMS embossing. Implementation of such Fresnel structures leads in modification of LED far-field what was proved by goniophotometer measurements.
Polymer based photonics brings simple and cheap solutions often with interesting results. We present capabilities of some siloxanes focusing on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with unique mechanical and optical properties. In combination of laser lithography technologies with siloxane embossing we fabricate different grating structures with one- and two-dimensional symmetry. Concept of PDMS based thin membranes with patterned surface as an effective diffraction element for modification of radiation pattern diagram of light emitting diodes is here shown. Also the PDMS was used as an alternative material for fabrication of complicated waveguide with implemented Bragg grating. For lab-on-chip applications, we patterned PDMS microstructures for microfluidic and micro-optic devices.
In this paper we demonstrate possibilities of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology based on two photon polymerization. We used three-dimensional dip-in direct-laser-writing (DLW) optical lithography to fabricate 2D and 3D optical structures for optoelectronics and for optical sensing applications. DLW lithography allows us use a non conventional way how to couple light into the waveguide structure. We prepared ring resonator and we investigated its transmission spectral characteristic. We present 3D inverse opal structure from its design to printing and scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. Finally, SEM images of some prepared photonic crystal structures were performed.
In this paper we present fabrication process of waveguides with surface relief Bragg grating (SR-BG) embossed in poly dimethyl diphenyl siloxane (PDMDPS). Generally, the Bragg grating causes spectral selectivity of propagated light in optical fibers and optical waveguides. We prepared the original concept of fabrication of novel optical waveguides with SR-BG using the laser interference lithography in combination with embossing process of liquid polymer. We used laser interference lithography in Mach-Zehnder configuration to create a grating with period of 21 μm in thin photoresist layer. In this manner, we created an array of D-shaped waveguides of 10 μm wide and app. 2.5 μm high. SR-BG was created in the next step, where the one dimensional surface Bragg grating with period 1.64 μm was prepared by interference lithography. This period was designed to reflect narrow spectral band close the telecommunication wavelength of 1.55 μm. Quality of the prepared waveguides and SR-BG was confirmed from atomic force microscope analysis. Transmission and coupling properties of the prepared SR-BG waveguides were finally measured by spectral measurements in infrared spectral region.
In this paper we present preparation process of ring resonator in racetrack configuration based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). 3D laser lithography in combination with imprinting technique was used to pattern photoresist layer as a master for imprinting process. In the next step, PDMS ring resonator was imprinted and filled with core PDMS. Finally, morphological properties of prepared device were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal microscope and transmission spectrum measurements were performed.
This contribution demonstrates surface modification of thin photoresist layers and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces with spatial resolution better than 20 nm. We provided few different 2D arrangements of surface patterning with aim to prepare 2D photonic structures with various symmetries in the thin S1828 photoresist layer using AFM lithography. Consequently, we used the imprinting technique for transferring the photoresist pattern to the PDMS membrane surface. Finally, prepared 2D photonic structures in photoresist and PDMS surfaces are characterized by AFM.
We describe new technologies for a fabrication of microfluidics and micro-optics components for lab-on-a-chip applications based on polydimethylsiloxane. We use combination of direct laser writing (DLW) lithography for channel patterning in photoresist layer with PDMS imprinting process. Unique imprinting and optical properties favors PDMS for fabrication of different microchannels and microlens arrays. This technology allows the fabrication of different PDMS channel structures. Also PDMS based microlens arrays were patterned in photoresist layer by DLW process and also by interference lithography and imprinted in PDMS layer. Spontaneous microlens array based on polystyrene microspheres was also prepared by spin-coating of dispersed microspheres in photoresist and for organized microlens array we used predefined two-dimensional grid prepared by interference lithography. Final structures were investigated by confocal and optical microscope. The prepared PDMS and polystyrene based microdevices can be used in lab-on-a-chip applications in sensing and biological measurements.
In this paper, capabilities of the fabrication technology for planar waveguide structures and devices in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) are presented. Direct laser writing in combination with imprinting technique was used to pattern photoresist layer as a master for imprinting process. In the next step, PDMS waveguide structures as channel waveguide, Y-branch waveguide splitter and ring resonator were imprinted. Finally, optical and morphological properties of prepared devices were investigated by confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy.
We describe fabrication process of optical waveguide structures such as multi-mode optical splitter and optical waveguide with surface Bragg grating in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Technology based on drawing of thin photoresist fiber with diameter up to 100 μm was developed and optimized. In this way, fibers drawn from photoresist form cores of waveguides in PDMS slab. After removal of the photoresist, created air channels can be filled in with different liquids. We prepared multimode waveguide structures in PDMS composed of two PDMS materials with different refractive indices. Using this technology, also complicated waveguide structures were prepared as optical splitter and surface Bragg grating were prepared in PDMS material.
Proc. SPIE. 8816, Nanoengineering: Fabrication, Properties, Optics, and Devices X
KEYWORDS: Lithography, Optical microscopes, Light emitting diodes, Optical lithography, Photoresist materials, Near field scanning optical microscopy, Optoelectronic devices, Near field, Photonics, Near field optics
Implementation of planar surface structures allows enhancement of light extraction from the light emitting diode (LED) surface due to diffraction-on-roughness based effect and photonic-band gap effect. Application of such structures can be attractive for overall and local enhancement of light from patterned areas of the LED surface. We used interference and near-field scanning optical microscope lithography for patterning of the surface of GaAs/AlGaAs based LEDs emitted at 840 nm. Also new approach with patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane applied directly in the LED surface was investigated. Technology of patterned PDMS membranes using interference lithography and imprinting process was developed. The overall emission properties of prepared LED with patterned structure show enhanced light extraction efficiency, what was documented from near- and far-field measurements.