In this paper, the results of the successful fabrication as well as the optical backscattering characterization of single plasmonic gold dipole nanoantennas on a SiO2/Si layered substrate are shown. The nanoantennas were designed for a scattering resonance in the NIR range. In contrast to usually used glass substrates, a six inch Siwafer with a thermally oxidized SiO2 layer in combination with an electron beam lithography lift-off fabrication process has been used for the sake of compatibility with microelectronics fabrication processes. In order to achieve high structural resolutions, a bilayer resist system with different exposure sensitivities was realized. In a second step, the entire resist thickness of 540 nm was reduced to 150 nm in a single layer. The SiO2 thickness was chosen in a way that the optical near-field interactions of the nanoantennas with the silicon substrate are decoupled. The SEM characterization of the fabricated structures shows precise nanoantenna geometries with low edge roughness in the case of the bilayer resist system. The aspect ratio of the fabricated nanoantenna structures is slightly decreased compared to the desired value of five. Depending on the applied e-beam exposure dose, an increase of the structural cross-section, i.e. critical dimension of the dipole width, was observed. Furthermore, the single resist layer introduces some structuring issues. The spectral behavior of the nanoantenna structures was investigated with an optical confocal broadband backscattering measurement setup allowing the spectral characterization of single nanoantenna structures. The developed numerical models helped to understand the impact of the manufacturing imperfections providing improved designs.
We present nanostructured reflectors as alternative for well-known alternating layer stack reflectors for Fabry-Pérot Interferometers (FPI) for the use in miniaturized spectrometry systems. The addressed FPI is part of an online monitoring system for specific molecules by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). Key part is the tunable FPI with nanostructured reflectors, which is fabricated with MEMS and NEMS technologies. Nanostructured Photonic Crystal (PhC) and Sub-Wavelength Grating (SWG) reflectors are developed. The PhC reflectors consisting of 400 nm thin moveable LP-CVD Si3N4 membranes with nanostructured holes realize an aperture of 1 mm with high reflectivity in the VIS range. The SWG reflectors are realized as nanostructured aluminum polygons on 150 nm thin LP-CVD Si3N4 membranes. The challenge in manufacturing of the PhC and SWG structures on 50 μm thin predefined silicon membrane areas is the thin wafer handling, because they are very fragile and tend to warp under their own weight. Further challenges such as delamination of the NIL-stamp from the wafer and eBeam resist homogeneity on the deflected thin silicon membranes for nanostructure replication as well as residual free resist layers for the followed RIE process and the match of the used Nanoimprint, 1:1 and eBeam lithography processes for the different layers have to be considered. The manufacturing and characterization of both alternative reflectors for prospective integration in VIS-FPIs on 6" wafers is described.
This paper describes the application of a micromachined resonator to verify the vacuum pressure and sealing of cavities in micromechanical components. We use an electrostatic driven and capacitively sensed bulk silicon resonator fabricated by Bonding and Deep Reactive Ion Etching (BDRIE) technology. The resonator operates at the first fundamental frequency. The damping is used as a degree of the pressure. Transversal comb structures act as squeeze film damping sources. Post-processing gap reduction substructures are used to increase the damping in the vacuum pressure range. This method makes it possible to observe the pressure over the time of smallest gas volumes by monitoring the damping of integrated micro mechanical resonant structures. Therewith it is possible to estimate the hermetic sealing quality of the closed sensor package. A transfer curve with a logarithmic characteristic is measured.
An adhesive bonding technique for wafer-level encapsulation of high aspect ratio microstructures (HARMS) is presented. The adhesive material is spin coated on a cap wafer and structured prior to bonding. Thus sealed cavities of variable height are created in the bonding layer. SU-8 negative photoresist is used as the adhesive material in combination with miscellaneous surface materials: silicon, silicon dioxide and aluminum. The influences of the bonding process parameters - bonding pressure, bonding temperature and process time - as well as the SU-8 layer properties on the bond strength and the homogeneity of the bond have been investigated. To evaluate the process conditions the shear strength of the bond has been measured according to the ASTM standard D 1002 for adhesive bonds. Each bond interface was tested by 32 test specimens of 10 by 10 mm2 side length. With optimal process conditions shear strength of 19.2, 23.3 and 21.3 MPa have been obtained for silicon, silicon dioxide and aluminium respectively. The application of the selective adhesive bonding technique has been successfully demonstrated by encapsulating different types of single crystal silicon inertial sensors.
This paper presents a new process flow for the fabrication of Air gap Insulated Microstructures (AIM) with strengthened interconnection beams based on standard single crystal silicon wafers. The main focus on the new development was set on the attributes of reliability and fatigue. As a result of our investigations, the interconnection beams were identified as weakest point in the system. To improve the quality of the beams, several material stacks with well defined properties were tested in order to find a suitable material stack for the interconnection beams instead of pure aluminum. The new process flow enables the use of layered structured beams without loosing any of the advantages of the AIM technology and also without increasing the number of masks.