In the force measurement of protein-protein interaction, proteins are usually attached to microbeads, so the coated beads serve as both handles and force transducers. Due to the short interaction distance between proteins, the beads are usually close enough to each other. When dual-beam optical tweezers and quadrant photodiode detector are used to investigate the interaction of proteins, it is found that the signal of detected beads is greatly affected by adjacent beads. Analysis reveals that the contribution of two beads to the quadrant detector signal is independent. A method for extracting the real interaction signal from a disturbed one is presented. Based on this method, interaction between microtubules and AtMAP65-1 is measured. The results show that this method is useful for measuring short-distance interaction with the precision of piconewton and nanometer scales.
All-optical ultrafast switching is demonstrated in a two-dimensional polystyrene photonic crystal, which is based on the shift of photonic gap under optical pumping. Both the response and recover time constants are measured to be less than 20fs.
In force calibration, when triangular-wave input is exerted on the piezoelectric-driven substage, there is a damped oscillation superposed on the square-wave movement of the trapped bead in our experiments. This will bring about instability for well trapping bead and become the noise source of the bead signal. Consequently, the superposed vibration will influence the precision and the range of force that can be calibrated. In order to analyze derivation of the oscillation and solve it, a model of equivalent oscillator is put forward. Based on this model, we calculate the initial amplitude of oscillation and frequency spectra of the movement of trapped bead, which is well in agreement with the experimental one. We apply sinusoidal-wave input substituted for triangular one to the substage, as a result, oscillation disturbance is avoided effectively, so the trapping stability of optical trap increases and the range of calibrated force has been extended greatly.
A diode-laser pumped blue intracavity frequency-doubled self-Q-switched microchip laser of a chromium Cr4+ Neodymium Nd3+ codoped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal (Cr4+Nd3+:YAG) combined with a potassium niobate (KNbO3) crystal is developed. By coating the cavity mirrors with the films that suppress the 1064-nm operation and enhance the 946-nm laser, the 4F3/24I9/2 transition of the Nd3+ ion is facilitated to achieve the 946-nm laser oscillation. The 946-nm laser of the Cr4+Nd3+:YAG is self-Q-switched due to the saturable absorption of the Cr4+ ion. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the laser pulse at a 964-nm wavelength is about 5.07 ns. A self-Q-switched 473-nm laser pulse is sequentially obtained through intracavity frequency doubling of the 946-nm laser by the KNbO3 crystal, whose FWHM is about 4.30 ns. The 473-nm intracavity doubled laser has a good fundamental transverse TEM00 mode, because the self-Q-switched 946-nm laser has a good TEM00 mode that results from the absorption bleaching established by both the 808-nm pump laser and 946-nm oscillating laser. The constant FWHM results from both the response time of the self-Q-switching and the establishing time of the oscillating laser being much faster than the accumulated time of the pump laser energy. The constant peak power of the 946-nm self-Q-switched laser mainly depends on the modulation ability of the self-Q-switching.
Conference Committee Involvement (2)
Nanophotonics, Nanostructure, and Nanometrology II