3D meso-scale structures, that can reach up to cm in overall size but retain micro- or nano-features, proved to be promising in various science fields from micro-mechanical metamaterials to photonics. In this work we present an approach of synchronizing linear positioning and galvo-scanning for efficient femtosecond 3D optical printing of objects at meso-scale. In such configuration linear stages provide stitchless structuring at nearly limitless (up to tens of cm) working area, while galvo-scanners allow to achieve translation velocities in the range of mm/scm/ s without sacrificing nano-scale positioning accuracy. The capabilities of this approach are demonstrated by fabricating mm sized but μm features retaining structures with free movable parts, scaffolds for cell growth, microlenses and photonic crystals. Provided results show that synchronization of this kind is crucial for an end goal of industrial-scale implementation of this technology.
A sensitive bolometric detector for visible and infrared wavelengths based on a novel assembly principle of a graphene monolayer on a nano/micro SiN membrane is realised. The basic operating principle of the optical detector relies on the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the graphene and creation of a strong thermal gradient, rT, which is detected via the Seebeck effect: Voltage = S x ∇rT, where S is the Seebeck coefficient of graphene. A simple lithography-free deposition of two metal contacts with different electron work functions: Pd (by sputtering) and Ag (by jet printing and annealing) was used. Sensitivity of the bolometer was the same ~1:1 mV/mW at 1030 and 515 nm wavelengths.
Glass-ceramics play an important role in todays science and industry as it can withstand immense heat, mechanical and other hazards. Consequently, there is a need to find ever-new ways to acquire more sophisticated free-form 3D ceramic and glass structures. Recently, stereo-lithographic 3D printing of hybrid organic-inorganic photopolymer and subsequent pyrolysis was demonstrated to be capable of providing true 3D ceramic and glass structures. However, such approach was limited to (sub-)millimeter scale, while one of the aims in the field is to acquire functional 3D glass-like structures in micro- or even nano-dimensions. In this paper, we explore a possibility to apply ultrafast 3D laser nanolithography in conjunction with pyrolysis to acquire glass-ceramic 3D structures in micro- and nano-scale. Laser fabrication allows production of initial 3D structures with relatively small (hundreds of nm) feature sizes out of hybrid organic-inorganic material SZ2080. Then, a post-fabrication heating at different temperatures up to 1000°C in Ar , air or O2 atmospheres decomposes organic part of the material leaving only the glass-ceramic component of the hybrid. As we show, this can be done to 3D woodpiles and bulk objects. We uncover that the shrinkage during sintering can reach up to 40%, while the aspect ratio of single features as well as filling ratio of the whole object remains the same. This hints at homogeneous reduction in size that can be easily accounted for and pre-compensated before manufacturing. Additionally, the structures prove to be relatively resilient to focused ion beam (FIB) milling, hinting at increased rigidity. Finally, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy measurements are performed in order to uncover undergoing chemical and physical phenomena during pyrolysis and composition of the remnant material. The proposed post-processing approach offers a straightforward way to downscale true 3D micro-/nanostructures for applications in nanophotonics, microoptics and mechanic devices with improved performance while being highly resilient to harsh surrounding conditions.
This work is dedicated for statistical investigation of laser induced damage threshold of a 3D fs laser lithography produced objects. Arrays of identical polymeric structures are produced out of different materials common in 3D printing and lithography and subjected to varying laser fluence resulting in polymeric objects either being damaged or not. Then, according to the damage probability, linear approximation is used to determine laser induced damage threshold in such structures. This way it is determined, that non photosensitized hybrid organicinorganic zirconium containing SZ2080 is the most resilient material in comparison to photosensitized SZ2080, other hybrid photopolymer OrmoClear, popular in lithography SU8 and Ember Clear used in 3D printing. Acquired results are compared to those obtained by other measurement techniques, advantages and drawbacks of such investigation are discussed.
Photonic crystal spatial filters is a potential solution to suppress multimode operation in micro-cavity lasers increasing the output beam spatial quality and its brightness. Here we propose that the operation of such PhCs can be improved by solving the inverse design problem with the use of chirped structure seed configuration without performing costly global searches. We experimentally prove the feasibility of such method by fabricating the PhC filters in Foturan photosensitive glass, opening new opportunities for photonic integration. The improvement goes beyond earlier achievements by factor of two for different desired lengths of the crystal.
In this work we explore a possibility to apply ultrafast 3D laser nanolithography in conjunction with pyrolysis to acquire glass-ceramic 3D structures in micro- and nano-scale. Laser fabrication allows for production of initial 3D structures with relatively small (hundreds nm - μm) feature sizes out of SZ2080 hybrid material. Then, postfabrication heating at 600°C in Ar atmosphere decomposes organic part of the material leaving the glass-ceramic component of the hybrid. Resulting structures are uniformly shrunk by 40%. This brings us one step closer to fabricating highly efficient slow-light absorbers.
We propose a high sensitivity photodetection tool at near-infrared frequencies, based on a principle of slowed- and stopped-light in chirped photonic micro/nano-structures. The main goal is to substantially increase the efficiency of photodetection and provide chromatic resolution in infrared photodetection. In particular we concentrate on the design of the chirped photonic micro/nano-structures providing a maximum field enhancement, and frequency dependence of stopped light distribution.
The microchip lasers, being sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam, strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here we propose that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. We experimentally show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by factor of 2, and thus increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 4. This comprises a new kind of laser, the "photonic crystal microchip laser", a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial high brightness radiation.
In this study, we propose a drop-out mechanism based on the enhanced interaction between a defect waveguide and defect microcavities in three-dimensional chirped woodpile photonic crystals (WPCs). We first show that light can be gradually slowed down in the defect waveguide (WG), which is obtained by gradually changing the period of the surrounding WPC along the propagation direction. In result, the waveguide mode gradually approaches the band edge region, while this phenomenon has three consequences. First, the Fourier components of propagating wave will be spatially separated as each frequency will reach its zero velocity at different positions. Second, as the wave slows down, it will penetrate deeper into the surrounding cladding, thus increasing the coupling efficiency between the WG and a nearby placed resonator. Third, the high density of states near the band edge result in highly efficient light scattering of a nearby placed resonator, which in turn increases the quality factor of the interaction. Following this idea, the acceptor type cavities, which are tuned to the localized frequencies, are side-coupled to the WG at respective wave localization areas. Furthermore, drop channels have been introduced to read-out the trapped spectra, showing that the targeted frequencies can be detected selectively. Compared to previous studies, our approach has the advantages of low radiation losses, the absence of any reflection feedback and both enhanced quality factor and transmission of the captured light.
Spatial filtering techniques are important for improving the spatial quality of light beams. Photonic crystals (PhCs) with a selective spatial (angular) transmittance can also provide spatial filtering with the added benefit transversal symmetries, submillimeter dimensions and monolithic integration in other devices, such as micro-lasers or semiconductor lasers. Workable bandgap PhC configurations require a modulated refractive index with period lengths that are approximately less than the wavelength of radiation. This imposes technical limitations, whereby the available direct laser write (DLW) fabrication techniques are limited in resolution and refractive index depth. If, however, a deflection mechanism is chosen instead, a functional filter PhC can be produced that is operational in the visible wavelength regime. For deflection based PhCs glass is an attractive choice as it is highly stable medium. 2D and 3D PhC filter variations have already been produced on soda-lime glass. However, little is known about how to control the scattering of PhCs when approaching the smallest period values. Here we look into the internal structure of the initially symmetric geometry 2D PhCs and associating it with the resulting transmittance spectra. By varying the DLW fabrication beam parameters and scanning algorithms, we show that such PhCs contain layers that are comprised of semi-tilted structure voxels. We show the appearance of asymmetry can be compensated in order to circumvent some negative effects at the cost of potentially maximum scattering efficiency.
Here we review and discuss the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the Photonic Crystals (PhCs) in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We numerically and experimentally explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. Additionally, we present a super-collimation effect, which we observed only in axisymmetric PhCs, which leads to a significant enhancement of axial beam components by depleting the higher angular frequency components. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.
We demonstrate how the coupling between (i) polarization of the writing laser beam, (ii) tight focusing and (iii) heat conduction affects the size, shape and absorption in the laser-affected area and therefore the polymerization process. It is possible to control the sizes of 3D laser-produced structure at the scale of several nanometers. Specifically we were able to tune the aspect ratio of 3D suspended line up to 20% in hybrid SZ2080 resist. The focal spot of tightly focused linearly polarized beam has an elliptical form with the long axis in the field direction. It is shown here that this effect is enhanced by increase in the electronic heat conduction when polarization coincide with temperature gradient along with the absorption. Overlapping of three effects (i- iii) results in the difference of several tens of nanometers between two axes of the focal ellipse. Narrow line appears when polarization and scan direction coincide, while the wide line is produced when these directions are perpendicular to each other. The effect scales with the laser intensity giving a possibility to control the width of the structure on nanometer scale as demonstrated experimentally in this work. These effects are of general nature and can be observed in any laser-matter interaction experiments where plasma produced by using tight focusing of linear-polarized light.
We explore, theoretically and experimentally, the spatial (angular) filtering of two-dimensional light beams by longitudinally chirped axisymmetric photonic microstructures. The structures comprise a set of planes of concentric rings with the separation between the plates smoothly varying along the propagation direction. Axisymmetric structures were recorded in a bulk of glass, in which the refractive index has been modulated using tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses. We show that the spatial filtering recently shown in nonchirped axisymmetric structures can be substantially improved by the chirp: the angular range of filtering was increased approximately two times. The numerical study reveals that the filtering efficiency can be strongly increased using the longer and larger index contrast axisymmetric photonic structures.