Progress in several technical areas is being leveraged to advantage in Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) systems. This
paper discusses advanced technologies that are appropriate for use in UGS systems. While some technologies provide
evolutionary improvements, other technologies result in revolutionary performance advancements for UGS systems.
Some specific technologies discussed include wireless cameras and viewers, commercial PDA-based system
programmers and monitors, new materials and techniques for packaging improvements, low power cueing sensor
radios, advanced long-haul terrestrial and SATCOM radios, and networked communications. Other technologies
covered include advanced target detection algorithms, high pixel count cameras for license plate and facial recognition,
small cameras that provide large stand-off distances, video transmissions of target activity instead of still images, sensor
fusion algorithms, and control center hardware. The impact of each technology on the overall UGS system architecture
is discussed, along with the advantages provided to UGS system users. Areas of analysis include required camera
parameters as a function of stand-off distance for license plate and facial recognition applications, power consumption
for wireless cameras and viewers, sensor fusion communication requirements, and requirements to practically
implement video transmission through UGS systems. Examples of devices that have already been fielded using
technology from several of these areas are given.
Technology advancements for the USMC UGS system are described. Integration of the ARL Blue Radio/CSR into the
System Controller and Radio Repeater permit the TRSS system to operate seamlessly within the Family of UGS
concept. In addition to the Blue Radio/CSR, the TRSS system provides VHF and SATCOM radio links. The TRSS
system is compatible with a wide range of imagers, including those with both analog and digital interfaces. The TRSS
System Controller permits simultaneous monitoring of 2 camera inputs. To complement enhanced compatibility and
improved processing, the mechanical housing of the TRSS System Controller has been updated. The SDR-II, a system
monitoring device, also incorporates four Blue Radio/CSRs along with other communication capabilities, making it an
ideal choice for a monitoring station within the Family of UGS. Field testing of L-3 Nova's UGS system at YPG has
shown flawless performance, capturing all 126 targets.
Modern Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) systems require transmission of high quality imagery to a remote location while meeting severe operational constraints such as extended mission life using battery operation. This paper describes a robust imagery system that provides excellent performance for both long range and short range stand-off scenarios. The imaging devices include a joint EO and IR solution that features low power consumption, quick turn-on time, high resolution images, advanced AGC and exposure control algorithms, digital zoom, and compact packaging. Intelligent camera operation is provided by the System Controller, which allows fusion of multiple sensor inputs and intelligent target recognition. The System Controller's communications package is interoperable with all SEIWG-005 compliant sensors. Image transmission is provided via VHF, UHF, or SATCOM links. The system has undergone testing at Yuma Proving Ground and Ft. Huachuca, as well as extensive company testing. Results from these field tests are given.
Demands for miniaturized networked sensors that can be deployed in large quantities dictate that the packages be small and cost effective. In order to accomplish these objectives, system developers generally apply advanced packaging techniques to proven systems. A partnership of Nova Engineering and Tessera begins with a baseline of Nova's Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) technology and utilizes Tessera's three-dimensional (3D) Chip-Scale Packaging (CSP), Multi-Chip Packaging (MCP), and System-in-Package (SIP) innovations to enable novel methods for fabricating compact, vertically integrated sensors utilizing digital, RF, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. These technologies, applied to a variety of sensors and integrated radio architectures, enable diverse multi-modal sensing networks with wireless communication capabilities. Sensors including imaging, accelerometers, acoustical, inertial measurement units, and gas and pressure sensors can be utilized. The greatest challenge to high density, multi-modal sensor networks is the ability to test each component prior to integration, commonly called Known Good Die (KGD) testing. In addition, the mix of multi-sourcing and high technology magnifies the challenge of testing at the die level. Utilizing Tessera proprietary CSP, MCP, and SIP interconnection methods enables fully testable, low profile stacking to create multi-modal sensor radios with high yield.
Historically, tactical sensor systems have transmitted limited amounts of data. Alert notifications, control signals, and status can be quickly transmitted using low rate data links such as 1200 bps. Increasingly, there is a desire to transmit more data through sensor systems. Signals may consist of E/O or IR images, acoustic or seismic signals, or near real-time target location information. Such capabilities are desired for Future Combat Systems, Objective Force Warrior, and the Objective Force. This paper addresses the ability of existing sensor systems to reliably provide timely transmission of large data files. Specifically, transmission of image files through sensor systems is analyzed. A theoretical analysis gives the probability of error-free image transmission, practical transmission distances, and the transmission time required. Experimental results that validate assumptions made in the theoretical analysis are given. Experimental results show that some existing sensor systems are fully capable of providing low latency, reliable image transmission.
Networked radio systems that utilize self-forming, fault tolerant techniques offer needed communication functions for Homeland Security and Law Enforcement agencies. The use of an ad hoc mesh network architecture solves some of the problems inherent to the wireless physical layer such as interferers, multi-path fading, shadowing, and loss of line-of-site. These effects severely limit the performance of current 802.11 wireless network implementations. This paper describes the use of Adaptive Link-layer Intelligence for Enhanced ad hoc Networking. This technology enhances recognition and characterization of sources of wireless channel perturbations and predicts their effects on wireless link quality. Identifying and predicting channel problems at the link level improves dynamic route discovery, circumvents channel disruptions before they cause a link failure, and increases communications reliability and data rate. First Responders, Homeland Security, and Law Enforcement agencies operating in locations lacking infrastructure, such as Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) operations, can benefit from increased communications reliability in highly impaired channels that are typical in disaster response scenarios.
An acousto-optic processor capable of analyzing signals consisting of a high frequency carrier modulated by an envelope signal is described. Space-integrating spectral analysis is used to channelize signals by carrier frequency. Time-integrating spectral analysis is used to characterize the envelope signal that modulates each carrier frequency. The output is a two- dimensional display with carrier frequency along one axis and envelope frequency along the orthogonal axis. Several advantages of the processor are explained and proof-of-concept experimental results are presented. One possible application of the processor is to the automatic separation and determination of the carrier frequencies and pulse repetition frequencies of multiple received radar signals.
A novel channelized, hybrid time- and space-integrating acoustooptic (AO) spectrum analyzer is described. The architecture consists of two AO cells in a crossed-cell configuration. The first AO cell is a wide bandwidth device that performs space-integrating spectral analysis and channelizes signals according to carrier frequency. The second AO cell, in conjunction with a modulated source, performs time-integrating spectral analysis of the signal envelope using the chirp algorithm. One possible application of the processor is to determine the carrier frequency and pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of received radar signals.