X-ray fluorescence images acquired using the Maia large solid-angle detector array and integrated real-time processor on
the X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy (XFM) beamline at the Australian Synchrotron capture fine detail in complex
natural samples with images beyond 100M pixels. Quantitative methods permit real-time display of deconvoluted
element images and for the acquisition of large area XFM images and 3D datasets for fluorescence tomography and
chemical state (XANES) imaging. This paper outlines the Maia system and analytical methods and describes the use of
the large detector array, with a wide range of X-ray take-off angles, to provide sensitivity to the depth of features, which
is used to provide an imaging depth contrast and to determine the depth of rare precious metal particles in complex
We have perfected a micromachining technology based on microlithography and electroforming for producing uniformly redundant arrays (URA) and Young's slits for coherence measurements in synchrotron radiation beamlines. The structures may act as absorbent objects or as phase objects. Two microfabrication techniques were used. Optical lithography in thin photoresists followed by gold electroforming on silicon nitride membranes produced structures 0.5-2.0 μm thick. Soft x-ray lithography in thick resists using the structures produced by optical lithography as a mask, followed by gold electroforming, produced structures up to 6.3 μm thick. Young's slits, one dimensional (1D), and two dimensional (2D) URA structures with feature sizes as small as 1 μm were produced in this way and used for coherence measurements in the soft and hard x-ray regimes at the Advanced Photon Source.
The manipulation of x-rays by phase structures is becoming more common through devices such as compound refractive lenses, blazed zone-plates and other structures. A spiral phase modulation structure can be used to condition an x-ray beam to produce an x-ray vortex. An x-ray beam in this form can be used as the first step towards a self-collimating beam. Also it can be used as a controllable pathological feature in studies of x-ray phase retrieval.
We describe the microfabrication of a spiral phase modulation structure by excimer laser ablation. A multi-step fabrication using 15 separate chrome-on-quartz mask patterns is used to create a 16 step spiral staircase structure approximating the desired spiral ramp. The results of simulations and initial experimental results are presented.
Conference Committee Involvement (5)
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