The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique. The spectra of 35 million galaxies and quasars over 14000 square degrees will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs.<p> </p> We describe the DESI corrector optics, a series of six fused silica and borosilicate lenses. The lens diameters range from 0.8 to 1.1 meters, and their weights 84 to 237 kg. Most lens surfaces are spherical, and two are challenging 10<sup>th</sup>-order polynomial aspheres. The lenses have been successfully polished and treated with an antireflection coating at multiple subcontractors, and are now being integrated into the DESI corrector barrel assembly at University College London.<p> </p> We describe the final performance of the lenses in terms of their various parameters, including surface figure, homogeneity, and others, and compare their final performance against the demanding DESI corrector requirements. Also we describe the reoptimization of the lens spacing in their corrector barrel after their final measurements are known. Finally we assess the performance of the corrector as a whole, compared to early budgeted estimates.
The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), currently under construction, will be used to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique. The spectra of 35 million galaxies and quasars over 14000 sq deg will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers, in turn, feed ten broad-band spectrographs. We will describe the broadband AR coating (360 nm to 980nm) that was applied to the lenses of the camera system for DESI using ion assisted deposition techniques in a 3 m coating chamber. The camera has 6 lenses ranging in diameter from 0.8 m to 1.14 m, weighing from 84 kg to 237 kg and made from fused silica or BK7. The size and shape of the surfaces provided challenges in design, uniformity control, handling, tooling and process control. Single surface average transmission and minimum transmission met requirements. The varied optical surfaces and angle of incidence considerations meant the uniformity of the coating was of prime concern. The surface radius of curvature (ROC) for the 12 surfaces ranged from nearly flat to a ROC of 611 mm and a sag of 140 mm. One lens surface has an angle of incidence variation from normal incidence to 40°. Creating a design with a larger than required bandwidth to compensate for the non-uniformity and angle variation created the ability to reduce the required coating uniformity across the lens and a single design to be used for all common substrate surfaces. While a perfectly uniform coating is often the goal it is usually not practicable or cost effective for highly curved surfaces. The coating chamber geometry allowed multiple radial positions of the deposition sources as well as substrate height variability. Using these two variables we were able to avoid using any masking to achieve the uniformity required to meet radial and angle performance goals. Very broadband AR coatings usually have several very thin and optically important layers. The DESI coating design has layers approaching 3 nm in thickness. Having sensitive thin layers in the design meant controlling layer thickness and azimuthal variation were critical to manufacturing repeatability. Through use of strategically placed quartz crystal monitors combined with stable deposition plumes, the manufacturing variability was reduced to acceptable levels. Low deposition rates and higher rotation rates also provided some stability to azimuthal variation.
The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation technique. The spectra of 35 million galaxies and quasars over 14000 sq deg will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fibre optic positioners. The fibres in turn feed 10 broad-band spectrographs. We will describe the design and production progress on the fibre cables, strain relief system and preparation of the slit end. In contrast to former projects, the larger scale of production required for DESI requires teaming up with industry to find a solution to reduce the time scale of production as well as to minimise the stress on the optical fibres.
The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique. The spectra of 35 million galaxies and quasars over 14000 sq deg will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. We report progress on a predictive sky background model for DESI, built on the spectra from the 5-year Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). This dataset consists of 1 million unique sky spectra covering 360 - 1040 nm collected in a variety of observational conditions. Using a fitted profile of the line spread function from the BOSS spectrograph, we separate the background continuum flux from the airglow lines, allowing us to study the behavior of both distinct emission sources across a large parameter space. Including both dark and bright sky conditions and covering the majority of the 24th solar cycle, our analysis provides new measurements of the inter-line sky continuum. The analysis of this paper is limited to the continuum flux in dark sky conditions at several wavelengths. This improved spectroscopic sky background model can be used in simulations and forecasting for DESI and other surveys.
The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique. The spectra of 35 million galaxies and quasars over 14000 square degrees will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. We present an overview of the instrumentation, the main technical requirements and challenges, and the current status of the project.
The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction and will be used to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) technique and the growth of structure using redshift-space distortions (RSD). The spectra of 30 million galaxies over 14000 sq deg will be measured over the course of the experiment. In order to provide spectroscopic targets for the DESI survey, we are carrying out a three-band (g,r,z ) imaging survey of the sky using the NOAO 4-m telescopes at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory (CTIO). At KPNO, we will use an upgraded version of the Mayall 4m telescope prime focus camera, Mosaic3, to carry out a z-band survey of the Northern Galactic Cap at declinations δ≥+30 degrees. By equipping an existing Dewar with four 4kx4k fully depleted CCDs manufactured by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), we increased the z-band throughput of the system by a factor of 1.6. These devices have the thickest active area fielded at a telescope. The Mosaic3 z-band survey will be complemented by g-band and r-band observations using the Bok telescope and 90 Prime imager on Kitt Peak. We describe the upgrade and performance of the Mosaic3 instrument and the scope of the northern survey.
The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique. The spectra of 40 million galaxies over 14,000 sq. deg. will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. We describe the ProtoDESI experiment, planned for installation and commissioning at the Mayall telescope in the fall of 2016, which will test the fiber positioning system for DESI. The ProtoDESI focal plate, consisting of 10 fiber positioners, illuminated fiducials, and a guide, focus and alignment (GFA) sensor module, will be installed behind the existing Mosaic prime focus corrector. A Fiber View Camera (FVC) will be mounted to the lower surface of the primary mirror cell and a subset of the Instrument Control System (ICS) will control the ProtoDESI subsystems, communicate with the Telescope Control System (TCS), and collect instrument monitoring data. Short optical fibers from the positioners will be routed to the back of the focal plane where they will be imaged by the Fiber Photometry Camera (FPC) or back-illuminated by a LED system. Target objects will be identified relative to guide stars, and using the GFA in a control loop with the ICS/TCS system, the guide stars will remain stable on pre-identified GFA pixels. The fiber positioners will then be commanded to the target locations and placed on the targets iteratively, using the FVC to centroid on back-illuminated fibers and fiducials to make corrective delta motions. When the positioners are aligned with the targets on-sky, the FPC will measure the intensities from the positioners’ fibers which can then be dithered to look for intensity changes, indicating how well the fibers were initially positioned on target centers. The final goal is to operate ProtoDESI on the Mayall telescope for a 6-hour period during one night, successfully placing targets on the intended fibers for the duration of a typical DESI science exposure.
[The BigBOSS experiment is a redshift survey designed to map the large scale structure of the universe and probe the nature of dark energy. Using massively-multiplexed _ber spectroscopy over 14,000 deg<sup>2</sup> of sky, the survey will deliver more than 20 million galaxy and quasar redshifts. The resulting three dimensional sky map will contain signatures from primordial baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) that set a "standard ruler" distance scale. Using the BAO signature, BigBOSS will measure the cosmological distance scale to < 1% accuracy from 0.5<z<3.0, shedding new light on the expansion history and growth of large scale structure in the Universe at a time when dark energy began to dominate. In this work, we give an overview of the BigBOSS survey goals and methodology, focusing on measuring the [O II] λ3727 emission line doublet from star-forming galaxies. We detail a new spectral simulation tool used in generating BigBOSS observations for emission-line galaxy targets. We perform a trade study of the detected galaxy redshift distribution under two observational cases relative to the baseline survey and discuss the impact on the BigBOSS science goal.
BigBOSS is a proposed ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the
growth of structure with a 14,000 square degree galaxy and quasi-stellar object redshift survey. It consists of a 5,000-
fiber-positioner focal plane feeding the spectrographs. The optical fibers are separated into ten 500 fiber slit heads at the
entrance of ten identical spectrographs in a thermally insulated room. Each of the ten spectrographs has a spectral
resolution (λ/Δλ) between 1500 and 4000 over a wavelength range from 360 - 980 nm. Each spectrograph uses two
dichroic beam splitters to separate the spectrograph into three arms. It uses volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings for
high efficiency and compactness. Each arm uses a 4096x4096 15 μm pixel charge coupled device (CCD) for the
detector. We describe the requirements and current design of the BigBOSS spectrograph. Design trades (e.g. refractive
versus reflective) and manufacturability are also discussed.
BigBOSS is a proposed ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the
growth of large scale structure. It consists of a fiber-fed multi-object spectrograph designed to be installed on the Mayall
4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona. BigBOSS includes an optical corrector assembly and 5000-fiber-positioner
focal plane assembly that replace the existing Mayall prime focus hardware. 40-meter long optical fiber bundles are
routed from the focal plane, through the telescope declination and right ascension pivots, to spectrographs in the
thermally insulated FTS Laboratory, immediately adjacent to the telescope. Each of the ten spectrographs includes three
separate spectral bands. The FTS Laboratory also houses support electronics, cooling, and vacuum equipment. The
prime focus assembly includes mounts for the existing Mayall f/8 secondary mirror to allow observations with
Cassegrain instruments. We describe the major elements of the BigBOSS instrument, plans for integrating with the
Telescope, and proposed modifications and additions to existing Mayall facilities.
BigBOSS is a Stage IV dark energy experiment based on proven techniques to study baryon acoustic oscillations and the growth of large scale structure. The 2010 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey labeled dark energy as a key area of exploration. BigBOSS is designed to perform a 14,000 square degree survey of 20 million galaxies and quasi-stellar objects. The project involves installation of a new instrument on the Mayall 4m telescope, operated by the National Optical
Astronomy Observatory. The instrument includes a new optical widefield corrector, a 5,000 fiber actuator system, and a multi-object spectrometer. Systems engineering flowdown from data set requirements to instrument requirements are discussed, along with the trade considerations and a pre-conceptual baseline design of the widefield optical corrector, spectrometer and fiber positioner systems.
The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) uses a dedicated 300-fiber, narrow-band
near-infrared (1.51-1.7 μm), high resolution (R~22,500) spectrograph to survey approximately 100,000 giant stars across
the Milky Way. This three-year survey, in operation since late-summer 2011 as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III
(SDSS III), will revolutionize our understanding of the kinematical and chemical enrichment histories of all Galactic
stellar populations. We present the performance of the instrument from its first year in operation. The instrument is
housed in a separate building adjacent to the 2.5-m SDSS telescope and fed light via approximately 45-meter fiber runs
from the telescope. The instrument design includes numerous innovations including a gang connector that allows
simultaneous connection of all fibers with a single plug to a telescope cartridge that positions the fibers on the sky,
numerous places in the fiber train in which focal ratio degradation had to be minimized, a large mosaic-VPH (290 mm x
475 mm elliptically-shaped recorded area), an f/1.4 six-element refractive camera featuring silicon and fused silica
elements with diameters as large as 393 mm, three near-infrared detectors mounted in a 1 x 3 mosaic with sub-pixel
translation capability, and all of these components housed within a custom, LN2-cooled, stainless steel vacuum cryostat
with dimensions 1.4-m x 2.3-m x 1.3-m.
Improving the precision of observational astronomy requires not only new telescopes and instrumentation, but
also advances in observing protocols, calibrations and data analysis. The Laser Applications Group at the National
Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, Maryland has been applying advances in detector
metrology and tunable laser calibrations to problems in astronomy since 2007. Using similar measurement techniques,
we have addressed a number of seemingly disparate issues: precision flux calibration for broad-band
imaging, precision wavelength calibration for high-resolution spectroscopy, and precision PSF mapping for fiber
spectrographs of any resolution. In each case, we rely on robust, commercially-available laboratory technology
that is readily adapted to use at an observatory. In this paper, we give an overview of these techniques.
BigBOSS is a proposed DOE-NSF Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment designed to study
baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of large scale structure with a 14,000 square
degree survey of the redshifts of galaxies and quasi-stellar objects. The project involves
modification of existing facilities operated by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory
(NOAO). Design and systems engineering of a preliminary 3 degree field of view refractive
corrector, atmospheric dispersion corrector (ADC), and 5000 actuator fiber positioning system are
A new fiber positioner design has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab to position hundreds or
thousands of optical Fibers on a large-field telescope focal plane. Each fiber is individually actuated within a small
cell on the focal plane using an r-θ stage. These fiber positioners are the baseline design for the curved focal plane of
the Super IFU Deployable Experiment (SIDE) on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias.
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey is the largest redshift survey conducted to date, and the principal survey observations have all been conducted on the dedicated SDSS 2.5m and 0.5m telescopes at Apache Point Observatory. While the whole survey has many unique features, this article concentrates on a description of the systems surrounding the dual fibre-input spectrographs that obtain all the survey spectra and that are capable of recording 5,760 individual spectra per night on an industrial, consistent, mass-production basis. It is hoped that the successes and lessons learned will prove instructive for future large spectrographic surveys.