Recently, on-chip quantum-cascade-laser-based frequency combs are gaining increasing attention both in the Mid-IR and in the THz spectral regions. THz devices offer the possibility of filling the gap of comb sources in a spectral region were no table-top comb is available. I will discuss direct THz comb generation from both homogeneous and heterogeneous quantum cascade lasers. Octave spanning emission spectra and comb operation on bandwidth larger than 1 THz are reported for heterogeneous cascades. I will also report on a series of new structures with homogeneous cascade design that feature a very low threshold current density (< 100 A/cm2), a bandwidth of roughly 1 THz centered a 3 THz and an extremely wide bandwidth (>1.8 THz) when driven in the NDR region. This extremely broadband emission in the NDR is studied as well with NEGF simulation and is based on an interplay between strong photon assisted transport due to the highly diagonal transition and domain formation.These structures are also showing RF injection locking with extremely reduced microwave powers. We will discuss locking experiments as well as a method to finely control the repetition rate of the laser based on controlled optical feedback.
Time resolved spectral measurements aimed to clarify the physics of field domains in the NDR will be also presented.
WE WILL REVIEW RECENT ADVANCES IN THE REALIZATION OF WIDE BANDWIDTH, HIGH PERFORMANCE. FREQUENCY COMB SOURCES BASED ON QUANTUM CASCADE LASERS OPERATING BOTH IN THE THz AND MID-IR REGIONS OF THE E. M. Spectrum. In the Mid-IR, a grating compressor is employed to obtain pulses from a quantum cascade comb operating in CW. IN THE THz, COPPER-BASED DOUBLE METAL WAVE GUIDES ALLOW COMB OPERATION ABOVE LIQUID NITROGEN TEMPERATURE WITH RELATIVE Comb BANDWIDTHS OF 25%. Frequency COMB CONTROL BY MEANS of RF INJECTION AND COUPLED CAVITY SCHEMES WILL BE PRESENTED TOGETHER WITH NEW COMB characterization TECHNIQUES.
The imaging and sensing technology operating in the THz region of the electromagnetic spectrum has a number of applications, with demonstrator products already available on the market for oncology imaging, production monitoring, and non-destructive test . However, the THz sources now at hand are still bulky and too expensive for expanding this technology to other proposed applications, which also include, among other, THz bandwidth photonics and security imaging. A higher level of integration with control electronics, a lower production cost, and a broader wavelength range of emission towards the far-infrared, are all desirable features to expand the fields of application of THz radiation. N-type Ge/SiGe quantum cascade structures grown on top of a Si(001) substrate are particularly promising for realizing a Si based THz source . The low effective mass and long non-radiative relaxation times due to the non-polar nature of the material, are expected to i) provide gain values close to those demonstrated in III-V quantum cascade structures at 4 K, and ii) to potentially enable 300 K operation. In this presentation we will discuss the optical and structural properties of n-type s-Ge/SiGe multi-quantum wells and asymmetric coupled quantum wells grown on Si(001) substrates by means of ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition . Extensive structural characterization obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), atomic probe tomography (APT) and X-ray diffraction shows the high material quality of strain-symmetrized structures (up to 5 micron active region thickness) and heterointerfaces (featuring interface roughness below 0.2 nm), down to the ultrathin barrier limit (about 1 nm). By performing THz absorption spectroscopy measurements combined to theoretical modeling on different asymmetric coupled quantum well systems (with varying large-well width or barrier thickness), we unambiguously demonstrated inter-well coupling and wavefunction tunneling . The agreement between experimental data and simulations allowed us to characterize the tunneling barrier parameters and, in turn, achieve a highly-controlled engineering of the electronic structure in forthcoming unipolar cascade systems based on n-type Ge/SiGe multi quantum-wells. Furthermore, by pump-and-probe, and time domain spectroscopic data with a thorough theoretical modeling, we will show that this material system is indeed promising as active material in quantum cascade lasers (QCL). We found i) narrow intersubband (ISB) absorption lines; ii) relatively long non-radiative ISB relaxation times at high temperature; iii) relaxation times for different ISB transitions favorable to population inversion. Leveraging on the promising results obtained by spectroscopy experiments, we theoretically investigate an electrically-pumped Ge/SiGe THz QCL through a non-Equilibrium Green Function formalism (nextnano.QCL), using as material parameters to model the scattering processes the values estimated from the analysis of the optical experimental data . As expected, due to the weaker interaction with the phonon field with respect to III-V based devices, we find a lower impact of the temperature on the gain spectrum. In addition, simulations show that the interface roughness values measured on our samples allows to achieve gain overcoming the losses of double-metal waveguides at room temperature. We believe that the present results will motivate new experimental efforts aimed at demonstrating room-temperature operation in group IV QCL THz devices.
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 C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zöllner, O. Skibitzki, G.Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, Accepted in Phys. Rev. Appl., 11, 014003 (2019).
 T. Grange, D. Stark, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Ortolani, D.J. Paul, G. Capellini, S. Birner and M. Virgilio, Submitted to Applied Physics Letters. Preprint available at https://arxiv.org/pdf/1811.12879.pdf.
Recently, on-chip quantum-cascade-laser-based frequency combs are gaining increasing attention both in the Mid-IR and in the THz spectral regions. THz devices offer the possibility of filling the gap of comb sources in a spectral region were no table top comb is available. We report on THz comb emission from homogeneous quantum cascade laser structure with a new active region design. It features a very low threshold current density (< 100 A/cm2), extremely wide bandwidth (>1 THz) extending from 3 THz to 4.2 THz and peculiar broadband behavior in the NDR region suggesting the presence of field domains. Time resolved spectral measurements employing an hot electron bolometer demonstrate the simultaneous lasing of all the modes in the NDR region and beatnote spectroscopy based on self-mixing proves the coherent nature of the broadband laser emission. Active control of the repetition rate is also demonstrated by using an external cavity scheme employing a piezo actuator. This active region is very promising for the future integration in an heterogeneous structure for octave spanning comb operation and also as an homogenous comb device