Based on the EBCOT algorithm, JPEG 2000 finds application in many fields, including high performance scientific, geospatial and video coding applications. Beyond digital cinema, JPEG 2000 is also attractive for low-latency video communications. The main obstacle for some of these applications is the relatively high computational complexity of the block coder, especially at high bit-rates. This paper proposes a drop-in replacement for the JPEG 2000 block coding algorithm, achieving much higher encoding and decoding throughputs, with only modest loss in coding efficiency (typically < 0.5dB). The algorithm provides only limited quality/SNR scalability, but offers truly reversible transcoding to/from any standard JPEG 2000 block bit-stream. The proposed FAST block coder can be used with EBCOT's post-compression RD-optimization methodology, allowing a target compressed bit-rate to be achieved even at low latencies, leading to the name FBCOT (Fast Block Coding with Optimized Truncation).
Motion compensated temporal lifting is a highly effective means for exploiting motion in wavelet-based video compression algorithms. One way to achieve both spatial and temporal scalability attributes is to apply a conventional spatial DWT to an initial set of temporal subbands. This "t+2D" paradigm may be reversed, performing the spatial transform first and temporally transforming its spatial subbands. In this paper, we show how the two paradigms can be bridged by a family of "vector" motion compensation operators. Different members of this family have different implications for compression efficiency and for artifacts which can appear at reduced resolutions.
We show how the vector motion compensation operators can be adaptively selected so as to achieve high compression efficiency, while simultaneously suppressing artifacts which might otherwise occur during scaling. The vector motion compensation paradigm provides an efficient framework for in-band block-based motion modeling, which suppresses the appearance of blocking artifacts. The proposed adaptive motion compensation operators have an added advantage in automatically selecting between different resolution-dependent motion models, so as to maximize energy compaction while avoiding the appearance of artifacts at reduced resolutions. Resolution-dependent motion models extend the useful range of bit-rate scalability over many orders of magnitude.
The paper provides an overview of the fundamental issues confronting scalable video compression, together with some of the most promising general approaches to addressing these issues. For motivation, the paper sketches a compelling application in remote browsing of video, whose realization is not possible without efficient highly scalable video compression technology. The paper outlines some of the most important structural alternatives for wavelet-based scalable video compression systems, together with experimental findings in support of particular alternatives. In particular, the paper describes novel spatio-temporal decomposition structures, a novel finely embedded motion coding structure, and a complete compression system which addresses the needs of a wide range of potential applications. Preliminary compression performance results are provided together with information on an implementation which is capable of real-time decoding at CIF resolutions and beyond.
JPEG2000 is a family of technologies based on the image compression system defined in IS 15444-1. Presently, the ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee of Photographic Experts (JPEG) is developing an international standard for interactivity with JPEG2000 files, called JPIP; it will become Part 9 of the standard. One of the main goals of JPIP is to exploit the multi-resolution and spatially random access properties of JPEG2000, to permit “smart dissemination” of the data for client-server based applications. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the principles and philosophy of operation underlying the JPIP standard, to outline aspects of the architecture of JPIP systems, and to report on the performance of a prototype implementation.
After nearly three years of international development, the still-image technology for the JPEG-2000 standard is almost fully established. This paper briefly summarizes the developmental history of this standard and discusses its evolution through the Verification Model (VM) experimental and testing software which will become the first fully compliant, fully functional implementation of the new standard. The standard is then described, highlighting the data domains at various stages during the forward compression process. These data domains provide certain flexibilities which offer many of the rich set of features available with JPEG-2000. Some of these features are then described, with algorithmic examples as well as sample output from the VM.
We examine some of the implications of the recent introduction of a class of highly scalable video compression algorithms for network distribution. In particular, we investigate statistical multiplexing of highly scalable VBR traffic in high speed networks, characterized by low channel error rates. The superiority of multiple priority shared queuing policies over the most commonly considered two priority approaches is established through simulation studies. We also propose an optimal Earliest Due Date (EDD) scheduling approach, which has decided advantages over shared queuing, when transmission delay and jitter are to be kept very small. This proposed approach involves dynamic modification of EDD scheduling parameters.
We propose a full color video compression strategy, based on 3D subband coding with camera pan compensation, to generate a single embedded bit stream supporting multiple decoder display formats and a wide, finely gradated range of bit rates. An experimental implementation of our algorithm produces a single bit stream, from which suitable subsets are extracted to be compatible with many useful decoder frame sizes and frame rates and to satisfy transmission bandwidth constraints ranging from several tens of kilo-bits per second to several megabits per second. Reconstructed video quality from any of these bit stream subsets is often found to exceed that obtained from an MPEG-1 implementation, operated with equivalent bit rate constraints, in both perceptual quality and mean squared error. In addition, when restricted to two dimensions, the algorithm produces some of the best results available in still image compression.