Reduction of unwanted light reflection from a surface of a substance is very essential for the improvement of the performance of optical and photonic devices. Anti-reflection (AR) surface textures can be created on the surface of lenses and other optical elements to reduce the intensity of surface reflections. AR textures are indispensable in numerous applications, both low and high power, and are increasingly demanded on highly curved optical components.
Nanofabrication involves the fabrication of devices at the nanometer scale. In this work, we used nanofabrication to design and fabricate nanostructures of squares and hexagons of different spatial pitch and gap width in Gallium Arsenide (GaAs). These structures have a gap of 300nm, 400nm, and pitch of 900nm, 1000nm and 1100nm. The fabrication process involves solvent cleaning, deposition of silicon oxide, soft and hard bake, photolithography and development. Both wet and dry etching were used to fabricate the expected structures. Results from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine the shapes of the fabricated arrays are presented in this study. By combining dry and wet etches, we obtained the desired shapes and depth of hexagons and squares with rounded edges. We report detailed fabrication processes and their corresponding results at each step.
Nano-arrays are an important structure for building chemical filters, photonic crystal waveguides, antireflection, or transmission devices. There are different methods of lithography to produce these nano-arrays, which include contact and projection photolithography, E-beam direct writing, and X-ray lithography. Contact photolithography is the most widely used method due to its simplicity and good for time and cost-saving. However, there are penalties that come with these benefits which include problems of generating Newton rings and difficulties of transferring patterns faithfully for situations at and beyond the diffraction limit.
In this work, we fabricated nano-arrays for high power antireflection applications using contact photolithography. Fortunately for the antireflection application, pattern periodicity is more important than obtaining the exact shape of the nanostructure. The fabricated structure, even though not the same as the original pattern, can still produce promising antireflection results. We have studied how the range of the distance between the mask and the photoresist affects the shapes of the produced patterns including holes, posts, and cones. The experimental results with different shapes and periodic patterns produced by different diffraction distances are explained with simulation results involving Fourier transformation and Fresnel diffraction of the mask patterns.
We explore guided modes in metallic "spoof-insulator-spoof" (SIS) waveguides: parallel plate
structures with subwavelength corrugation on the surfaces of both conductors. A dispersion relation for
SIS waveguides is analytically obtained. The modes in the structure arise from the coupling of
conventional parallel plate waveguide modes with the localized modes of the grooves. SIS waveguides
can be engineered to guide modes with low group velocities and SIS tapers can be used to convert light
between photonic modes and plasmonic ones.