The development of power transmission by microwave beam power harvesting attracts manufactures for use of wireless power transmission. Optimizing maximum conversion efficiency is affected by many design parameters, and has been mainly focused previously. Combining several rectennas in one array potentially aides in the amount of microwave energy that can be harvested for energy conversion. Closely packed rectenna arrays is the result of the demand to minimize size and weight for flexibility. This paper specifically focuses on the coupling effects on power; mutual coupling, comparing sparameters and gain total while varying effective parameters. This paper investigates how coupling between each dipole positively and negatively affects the microwave energy, harvesting, and the design limitations.
CMOS logic circuits have entered the sub-100nm regime, and research is on-going to investigate the quantum effects that are apparent at this dimension. To avoid some of the constraints imposed by fabrication, entropy, energy, and interference considerations for nano-scale devices, many have begun designing hybrid and/or photonic integrated circuits. These circuits consist of transistors, light emitters, photodetectors, and electrical and optical waveguides. As attenuation is a limiting factor in any communications system, it is advantageous to integrate a signal amplifier. There are numerous examples of electrical amplifiers, but in order to take advantage of the benefits provided by optically integrated systems, optical amplifiers are necessary. The erbium doped fiber amplifier is an example of an optical amplifier which is commercially available now, but the distance between the amplifier and the device benefitting from amplification can be decreased and provide greater functionality by providing local, on-chip amplification. Zinc oxide is an attractive material due to its electrical and optical properties. Its wide bandgap (≈3.4 eV) and high refractive index (≈2) make it an excellent choice for integrated optics systems. Moreover, erbium doped zinc oxide (Er:ZnO) is a suitable candidate for optical waveguide amplifiers because of its compatibility with semiconductor processing technology, 1.54 μm luminescence, transparency, low resistivity, and amplification characteristics. This research presents the characterization of radio frequency magnetron sputtered Er:ZnO, the design and fabrication of integrated waveguide amplifiers, and device analysis.
Inorganic-organic hybrid composite has attracted as its combined synergistic properties. Cellulose based inorganicorganic hybrid composite was fabricated with semiconductive nanomaterials which has functionality of nanomaterial and biocompatibility piezoelectricity, high transparency and flexibility of cellulose electro active paper namely EAPap. ZnO is providing semiconductive functionality to EAPap for hybrid nanocomposite by simple chemical reaction. Cellulose- ZnO hybrid nanocomposite (CEZOHN) demonstrates novel electrical, photoelectrical and electromechanical behaviors. This paper deals with methods to improve electromechanical property of CEZOHN. The fabrication process is introduced briefly, charging mechanism and evaluation is studied with measured piezoelectric constant. And its candidate application will be discussed such as artificial muscle, energy harvester, strain sensor, flexible electrical device.
The integration of biosensors with radio frequency (RF) wireless power transmission devices is becoming popular, but there are challenges for implantable devices in medical applications. Integration and at the same time miniaturization of medical devices in a single embodiment are not trivial. The research reported herein, seeks to review possible effects of RF signals ranging from 900 MHz to 100 GHz on the human tissues and environment. Preliminary evaluation shows that radio waves selected for test have substantial influence on human tissues based on their dielectric properties. In the advancement of RF based biosensors, it is imperative to set up necessary guidelines that specify how to use RF power safely. In this paper, the dielectric properties of various human tissues will be used for estimation of influence within the selected RF frequency ranges.
Various wireless power transfer systems based on electromagnetic coupling have been
investigated and applied in many biomedical applications including functional electrical
stimulation systems and physiological sensing in humans and animals. By integrating
wireless power transfer modules with wireless communication devices, electronic systems
can deliver data and control system operation in untethered freely-moving conditions
without requiring access through the skin, a potential source of infection. In this
presentation, we will discuss a wireless power transfer module using magnetic resonance
coupling that is specifically designed for neural sensing systems and in-vivo animal models.
This research presents simple experimental set-ups and circuit models of magnetic
resonance coupling modules and discusses advantages and concerns involved in positioning
and sizing of source and receiver coils compared to conventional inductive coupling
devices. Furthermore, the potential concern of tissue heating in the brain during operation of
the wireless power transfer systems will also be addressed.
Sensor arrays for bio/chemical sensing generally incorporate different types of sensors with different substrate
coatings, enabling increased sensor sensitivity and selectivity. However, a challenge in using multiple sensor
systems is integration with RF electronic circuitry. This work presents the development of flexural plate
wave (FPW) acoustic devices implemented in a sensor array and co-integrated on a Si-CMOS circuit. FPWs
are highly sensitive to surface perturbations and indirectly sense analytes by detecting mass changes on the
sensing plate surface. The sensors are placed in an oscillating circuit, where changes in the oscillation
frequency are used to determine changes in the wave velocity due to mass loading by the analyte [1, 2]. Since
FPWs are generated in thin plates, these devices are highly sensitive to loading and exhibit the highest mass
sensitivities of any acoustic wave device [1, 2]. In the work presented, FPWs are fabricated on Si/SiO<sub>2</sub>/Si
native substrates, with the interdigitated transducers (IDTs) isolated from the active sensing surface. This
innovative design enables the sensors to be fabricated and then separated from the native substrate, transferred,
and bonded to the host Si-CMOS circuit. Thus, a new approach for the heterogeneous integration of FPW
sensors and circuitry is provided. Following integration, the FPWs can be customized with either chemical
membranes or biological functionalization. Moreover, this novel approach allows each sensor to be
optimized independently before being connected to the host substrate. This paper presents the design,
development, and integration process of an FPW sensor on Si-CMOS circuitry.
The research reported herein includes the fabrication of a tunable optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fiber ring laser (FRL)<sup>1</sup> from commercially available components as a high-speed alternative tunable laser source for NASA Langley's optical frequency domain reflectometer (OFDR) interrogator, which reads low reflectivity FBG sensors. A Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) actuator invented at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) was selected to tune the laser. MFC actuators use a piezoelectric sheet cut into uniaxially aligned rectangular piezo-fibers surrounded by a polymer matrix and incorporate interdigitated electrodes to deliver electric fields along the length of the piezo-fibers. This configuration enables MFC actuators to produce displacements larger than the original uncut piezoelectric sheet. The FBG filter was sandwiched between two MFC actuators, and when strained, produced approximately 3.62 nm of wavelength shift in the FRL when biasing the MFC actuators from -500 V to 2000 V. This tunability range is comparable to that of other tunable lasers and is adequate for interrogating FBG sensors using OFDR technology. Three different FRL configurations were studied. Configuration A examined the importance of erbium-doped fiber length and output coupling. Configuration B demonstrated the importance of the FBG filter. Configuration C added an output coupler to increase the output power and to isolate the filter. Only configuration C was tuned because it offered the best optical power output of the three configurations. Use of Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) FBG's holds promise for enhanced tunability in future research.
The demand for high safety and reliability standards for aerospace vehicles has resulted in time-consuming periodic on-ground inspections. These inspections usually call for the disassembling and reassembling of the vehicle, which can lead to damage or degradation of structures or auxiliary systems. In order to increase aerospace vehicle safety and reliability while reducing the cost of inspection, an on-board real-time structural health monitoring sensing system is required. There are a number of systems that can be used to monitor the structures of aerospace vehicles. Fiber optic sensors have been at the forefront of the health monitoring sensing system research. Most of the research has been focused on the development of Bragg grating-based fiber optic sensors. Along with the development of fiber Bragg grating sensors has been the development of a grating measurement technique based on the principle of optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR), which enables the interrogation of hundreds of low reflectivity Bragg gratings. One drawback of these measurement systems is the 1 - 3 Hz measurement speed, which is limited by commercially available tunable lasers. The development of high-speed fiber stretching mechanisms to provide high rate tunable Erbium-doped optical fiber lasers can alleviate this drawback. One successful approach used a thin-layer composite unimorph ferroelectric driver and sensor (THUNDER) piezoelectric actuator, and obtained 5.3-nm wavelength shift. To eliminate the mechanical complexity of the THUNDER actuator, the research reported herein uses the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) actuator to tune Bragg grating based optical fibers.