This paper investigates the use of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) spectral imaging to study the deterioration of a Limoges enamel panel. Limoges enamels are formed of glass layers applied on a metal substrate and are prone to ‘glass disease’. However, the level of deterioration in Limoges enamels is generally difficult to assess visually. In this study, SWIR was used to produce a hydration level map of the enamel, which was coupled with virtual OCT cross-sections. The study shows a good correlation between levels of hydration and structural damage over the enamel panel. Hydration mapping allows visualisation of structural damage across the entire enamel in one image.