The fabrication and optimization of plasmonic nanostructures have many interesting and important applications including advancements in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). One popular and cost-effective method to fabricate plasmonic nanopatterns is by a colloid template. By combining close-packed colloid monolayer and dynamic shadowing growth, we demonstrate that a variety of nanopatterns, such as nano-triangles, nano-cup triangles, hexagonal holes, and dual triangles, can be fabricated by varying vapor deposition angle, the substrate azimuthal rotation, as well as the evaporation configuration. Especially when a two-source evaporator is used, dual triangles with different shapes and compositions are simultaneously formed. The formation of these nanopatterns can be predicted by numerical and Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, the visible localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of these patterns can be tuned systematically by changing the deposition conditions and the colloidal monolayer. Their plasmonic properties can be understood through finite-difference time-domain simulations. The tunability of LSPR can be used to design optimized substrate for SERS.
Three-dimensional nanostructures can be fabricated by the glancing angle deposition technique. By rotating the substrate in both polar and azimuthal directions, one can fabricate desired nanostructures, such as nano-rod arrays with different shapes, nano-spring arrays, and even multilayer nanostructures. This method offers a fully three-dimensional control of the nanostructure with additional capability of self-alignment. There is almost no limitation on materials that can be fabricated into desired nanostructures. In this presentation, we will discuss the current status of the glancing angle deposition technology, its potential applications, and its future challenges.