A mathematical model of space target illumination characteristics is established based on the basic theory of radiation by considering geometry, background, and material characteristics of the space target. Using the model, the spatial distribution of scattering light intensity from the space target is calculated with the modeling and blanking technique of target when being illuminated by the sun. The relations of specular reflection with the position, geometry, materials and other attributes of the space target are analyzed. Furthermore, the effect of specular reflection on space target detecting is discussed. A method of characteristic simulation of space target is presented. The simulation result indicates that polyhedral structure, mirror surface, or solar sail is easy to cause specular reflection. It shows the effect of specular reflection is helpful for space target detection and identification.