An ongoing collaboration among four US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories has demonstrated key technology prototypes and software modeling tools required for new high-coherent flux beamline optical systems. New free electron laser (FEL) and diffraction-limited storage ring (DLSR) light sources demand wavefront preservation from source to sample to achieve and maintain optimal performance. Fine wavefront control was achieved using a novel, roomtemperature cooled mirror system called REAL (resistive element adjustable length) that combines cooling with applied, spatially variable auxiliary heating. Single-grating shearing interferometry (also called Talbot interferometry) and Hartmann wavefront sensors were developed and used for optical characterization and alignment on several beamlines, across a range of photon energies. Demonstrations of non-invasive hard x-ray wavefront sensing were performed using a thin diamond single-crystal as a beamsplitter.
We describe design guidelines for soft x-ray wavefront sensors and experimentally demonstrate their performance, comparing grating-based lateral shearing interferometry and Hartmann wavefront sensing. We created a compact shearing interferometer concept with a dense array of binary amplitude gratings in a single membrane to support one-dimensional wavefront measurements across a wide wavelength range without the need for longitudinal position adjustment. We find that a common scaling parameter based on wavelength and the distance to the measurement plane guides the design of both systems toward optimal sensitivity. We show preliminary results from recent experiments demonstrating one and two-dimensional wavefront sensing below the Marechal criterion.