Soraa has developed a novel ammonothermal approach for growth of high quality, true bulk GaN crystals at a greatly reduced cost. Soraa’s patented approach, known as SCoRA (Scalable Compact Rapid Ammonothermal) utilizes internal heating to circumvent the material-property limitations of conventional ammonothermal reactors. The SCoRA reactor has capability for temperatures and pressures greater than 650 °C and 500 MPa, respectively, enabling higher growth rates than conventional ammonothermal techniques, yet is less expensive and more scalable than conventional autoclaves fabricated from nickel-based superalloys. SCoRA GaN growth has been performed on c-plane and m-plane seed crystals with diameters between 5 mm and 2" to thicknesses of 0.5-4 mm. The highest growth rates are greater than 40 μm/h and rates in the 10-30 μm/h range are routinely observed. These values are significantly larger than those achieved by conventional ammonothermal GaN growth and are sufficient for a cost-effective manufacturing process. Two-inch diameter, crack-free, free-standing, n-type bulk GaN crystals have been grown. The crystals have been characterized by a range of techniques, including x-ray diffraction rocking-curve (XRC) analysis, optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence (CL), optical spectroscopy, and capacitance-voltage measurements. The crystallinity of the grown crystals is very good, with FWHM values of 15-80 arc-sec and average dislocation densities below 5 x 10<sup>5</sup> cm<sup>-2</sup>.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) crystals can be grown by vapor phase transport, hydrothermal solution growth, and high pressure melt
growth. Three inch size single crystal has been demonstrated by the hydrothermal growth technique. We will emphasis
on the hydrothermal technology of large size ZnO crystal. Material characteristics are discussed and compared to ZnO
fabricated from vapor phase and melt growth. A route to obtain high-quality, single-crystalline ZnO films with
mechanically untouched surfaces is employed to screen the doping of ZnO under the conditions of growth near the
thermodynamic equilibrium. Future trends in ZnO crystal growth technology will be discussed.