Uniaxial materials whose axial and tangential permittivities have opposite signs are referred to as indefinite or hyperbolic media. While hyperbolic responses are normally achieved with metamaterials, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) naturally possesses this property due to the anisotropic phonons in the mid-infrared. Using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy, we studied polaritonic phenomena in hBN. We performed infrared nano-imaging of highly confined and low-loss hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hBN. The polariton wavelength was shown to be governed by the hBN thickness according to a linear law persisting down to few atomic layers . Additionally, we carried out the modification of hyperbolic response in meta-structures comprised of a mononlayer graphene deposited on hBN . Electrostatic gating of the top graphene layer allows for the modification of wavelength and intensity of hyperbolic phonon polaritons in bulk hBN. The physics of the modification originates from the plasmon-phonon coupling in the hyperbolic medium. Furthermore, we demonstrated the “hyperlens” for subdiffractional focusing and imaging using a slab of hBN .
 S. Dai et al., Science, 343, 1125 (2014).
 S. Dai et al., Nature Nanotechnology, 10, 682 (2015).
 S. Dai et al., Nature Communications, 6, 6963 (2015).
van der Waals (vdW) crystals consist of individual atomic planes coupled by vdW interaction, similar to graphene monolayers in bulk graphite. We investigated van der Waals heterostructures assembled from atomically thin layers of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). We launched, detected and imaged plasmonic, phonon polaritonic and hybrid plasmon-phonon polariton waves in a setting of an antenna based nano-infrared apparatus. Hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hBN enabled sub-diffractional focusing in infrared frequencies. Because electronic, plasmonic and phonon polaritonic properties in van der Waals heterstructures are intertwined, gate voltage and/or details of layer assembly enable efficient control of nano-photonic effects.
Metamaterial structures designed to have simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability are known as left-handed materials. Their complexity and our understanding of their properties have advanced rapidly to the point where direct applications are now viable. We present a radial gradient-index (GRIN) lens with an index-of-refraction ranging from -2.67(edge) to -0.97(center). Experimentally, we find the lens can produce field intensities at the focus that are greater than that of the incident plane wave. These results are obtained at 10.45 GHz and in excellent agreement with full-wave simulations. This lens is a demonstrate an newly pioneered advanced fabrication technique using conventional printed circuit board (PCB) technology which offers significant design, mechanical, and cost advantages over other microwave lens constructions.
We present S and P polarized measurements of artificial bianisotropic magnetic metamaterials with resonant behavior at infrared frequencies. These metamaterials consist of an array of micron sized (~40μm) copper rings fabricated upon a quartz substrate. Simulation of the reflectance is obtained through a combination of electromagnetic eigenmode simulation and Jones matrix analysis, and we find excellent agreement with the experimental data. It is shown that although the artificial magnetic materials do indeed exhibit a magnetic response, care must be taken to avoid an undesirable electric dipole resonance, due to lack of reflection symmetry in one orientation. The effects of bianisotropy on negative index are detailed and shown to be beneficial for certain configurations of the material parameters.
The combination of lowered dimensionality and electron-electron correlations are responsible for the unusual temperature and frequency dependence of the electrical conductivity of the new superconductors. We first review the electrodynamics of two systems, U2Ru2Si2 and Sr2RuO4 where conventional Fermi liquid ideas seem to work. Here transport is by free carriers with strongly renormalized masses. On the other hand the electrodynamics of the high Tc cuprates and the organic charge transfer salts is unconventional. The high Tcs show a Drude peak with an anomalous temperature and frequency dependent scattering rate for the in-plane conductivity, while normal to the planes they are almost insulating. In the organics, the transport currents are carried by a narrow collective mode coupled to phonons.