The concept of the development of a microscope to provide research in the aquatic environment is proposed in conditions where the study of living and inanimate, static or moving microscopic objects in the environment of their natural location is required. Underwater microscope uses methods and technologies, similar conventional, based on the theory of diffraction. Achievable resolution is up to 0.3-0.5 micrometers (μm). The optical system of the underwater microscope should allow the study of microscopic objects in the water column (at different depths). In the case of an underwater microscope, the only way to get images is to use a digital receiver. Objective of microscope should be work in water immersion. The optical and the mechanical design of the objective for an underwater microscope must be adapted to the conditions of immersion in the water column, including to a considerable depth.
The study of biological objects using a light microscope is one of the main methods of diagnostic practice in many areas of natural science. Most modern methods of researching objects using a light microscope include preliminary preparation of objects. However, in this case it is impossible to achieve a high degree of reliability of information about the object under study.
Some aspects of the construction of front components in lens systems of objectives for light microscopes are considered. The analysis of existing systems is carried out and new engineering solutions are offered. Examples of optical design are made.
The results of optical designs of objectives for budget light microscopes are presented, including for providing special methods of contrasting. For the design, original optical constructions are applied.
The aspects of the use of dioptric optics for DUV microscopy are considered. The transition to the NUV and DUV range can significantly improve the resolving power of the microscope. Different kinds of crystals can be used as optical materials.
Some aspects of the expansion of the spectral range for lens objectives for microscope are considered. It is proposed to use two types of optics. The first type provides operation in the near ultraviolet range (NUV) plus a visible range. The second type provides operation in the visible and near infrared (NIR) spectral range.
The main difference is a significant expansion of the linear field, which reaches 50 mm in the image plane. However, in this case, a planapochromatic correction must be achieved for the usual visible spectral range. Such a parameter of objectives, like over large working distances – is an additional advantage.
Presents the results of the optical design of lens objectives for polarization light microscopes, including to ensure that the special techniques. Sometimes such methods require the use of objectives similar magnifications in air and in immersion; with iris aperture diaphragm.
The results of optical design of non-standard objectives for biological light microscopes are presented. Considered objectives, which use water immersion, including. Also, quartz fluorite plan monochromate objectives for the fluorescence use.
An overview of existing technical solutions for creating visualization systems for light microscopes is presented. Theoretical and practical aspects of the design of optical systems are considered taking into account the projection of the image of the object on the electronic receiver. The analysis of the basic tendencies in development of modern visualization systems for light microscopes is made. It is necessary to fulfill the basic requirements that ensure correlation when observing images in the eyepieces and using a visualization system. System must to transfer to the receiver linear image of the microscope corresponding to the resolution of the used objective.
The optical design as a result of the synthesis of optical elements with known base aberrations properties is the basis for the unification of optical systems of objectives for microscopes. Technical parameters, optical circuits, optical and mechanical structures are subject to unification.
The main difference of the planapochromatic objectives is the extended working spectral range. However, other differences also in achieving increased numerical apertures and an extended linear field. The main challenge is the technical possibility of obtaining rational optical designs.
This paper reviews the technical solutions for reduction optical photolithography systems based on the principle of obtaining a scaled-down object image. Dioptric reduction system design trends are discussed and applied technical solutions for building such systems are proposed. Genuine optical systems are offered which comply with the requirements mentioned above.
The obtaining a compromise aberration correction objectives for visual observation under a biological microscope. Well
know, that objective is the most difficult and expensive element of the microscope optical system. This case, using of
non so many elements objective give the opportunity to reduce the microscope price. But, the technical parameters of
new objectives correspond better results of optical resolution.
The obtaining a large field for visual observation under a polarizing microscope is still a technological challenge. Objective is the most difficult element of the optical system. It should be clear in relation to the chromatic aberration, but also have an increased numerical aperture.
Estimation of probable clearances in the fit of the installed lenses and the impact from mounting and adjustment of
units on system alignment and the resulting imaging quality has been considered. The characters of dispersion fields and
acceptable deviations in mating dimensions of parts and their allowance have been analyzed for the estimation of
probable clearances. Very commonly existing deviations in the clearances have a considerable systematic component
due to systematic components of errors in the mated dimensions of parts. It has been shown that the assembly of lens
based optical systems in horizontal position of its body allows vast reduction of the impact given by clearances on the
accuracy of the alignment of the lens parts as compared to assembly in vertical position of its body, as in the this case the
lens misalignment is due to errors in the diameters of lens components. For the adjustment of the quality of the image
generated by the optical system it is necessary to take into account both the impact from misalignment of lens
components on edge and central aberrations of the image field.
We present results of optical lenses with special design features for the assembly forced metallographic
light microscope. Presented lenses satisfy the requirements of the linear field, the correction of aberrations.