Nowadays the geometric approach in optics is often used to find out media parameters based on propagation paths of the rays because in this case it is a direct problem. However inverse problem in the framework of geometrized optics is usually not given attention. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the work of the proposed the algorithm in the framework of geometrized approach to optics for solving the problem of finding the propagation path of the electromagnetic radiation depending on environmental parameters. The methods of differential geometry are used for effective metrics construction for isotropic and anisotropic media. For effective metric space ray trajectories are obtained in the form of geodesic curves. The introduced algorithm is applied to well-known objects, Maxwell and Luneburg lenses. The similarity of results obtained by classical and geometric approach is demonstrated.
The transformation optics uses geometrized Maxwell’s constitutive equations to solve the inverse problem of optics, namely to solve the problem of finding the parameters of the medium along the paths of propagation of the electromagnetic field. For the geometrization of Maxwell’s constitutive equations, the quadratic Riemannian geometry is usually used. This is due to the use of the approaches of the general relativity. However, there arises the question of the insufficiency of the Riemannian structure for describing the constitutive tensor of the Maxwell’s equations. The authors analyze the structure of the constitutive tensor and correlate it with the structure of the metric tensor of Riemannian geometry. It is concluded that the use of the quadratic metric for the geometrization of Maxwell’s equations is insufficient, since the number of components of the metric tensor is less than the number of components of the constitutive tensor. A possible solution to this problem may be a transition to Finslerian geometry, in particular, the use of the Berwald-Moor metric to establish the structural correspondence between the field tensors of the electromagnetic field.
In solving field problems, for example problems of electrodynamics, we commonly use the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms. Hamiltonian formalism of field theory has the advantage over the Lagrangian, which inherently contains a gauge condition. While the gauge condition is introduced ad hoc from some external reasons in the Lagrangian formalism. However, the use of the Hamiltonian formalism in the field theory is difficult due to the non-regularity of the field Lagrangian. We must use such variant of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formalism, which would allow us to work with the field models, in particular, to solve the problem of electrodynamics. We suggest to use the modern differential geometry and the algebraic topology, in particular the theory of fiber bundles, as a mathematical apparatus. This apparatus leads to greater clarity in the understanding of mathematical structures, associated with physical and technical models. The usage the fiber bundles theory allows us to deepen and expand both the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formalism. We can detect a wide range of these formalisms. Also we can select the most appropriate formalism. Actually just using the fiber bundles formalism we can adequately solve the problems of the field theory, in particular the problems of electrodynamics.
We investigate the waveguide propagation of polarized monochromatic light in a smoothly irregular transition between two regular planar dielectric waveguides. The single-mode approximation of the cross-sections method is used. The smooth evolution of the electromagnetic field propagating mode is calculated. The calculation is performed using the regularized stable numerical method.
The Hamiltonian formalism is extremely elegant and convenient to mechanics problems. However, its application to the classical field theories is a difficult task. In fact, you can set one to one correspondence between the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian in the case of hyperregular Lagrangian. It is impossible to do the same in field theories. In the case of irregular Lagrangian the Dirac–Bergman Hamiltonian formalism with constraints is usually used, and this leads to a number of certain difficulties. The paper proposes a reformulation of the problem to the case of a field without sources. This allows to use a instantaneous (symplectic) Hamiltonian formalism.
The paper considers the technics of construction of optical devices based on the method of geometrization of Maxwell's equations. The method is based on representation of material equations in the form of an effective space-time geometry. Thus we get a problem similar to that of some bimetric theory of gravity. That allows to use a well-developed apparatus of differential geometry. On this basis, we can examine the propagation of the electromagnetic field on the given parameters of the medium. It is also possible to find the parameters of the medium by a given law of propagation of electromagnetic fields.