A new analytic parameter-the degree of local depolarization (LPD) of the laser field-is theoretically justified. The technique of experimental measurement of LPD maps is presented. Sets of diagnostic parameters-statistical moments of the first-fourth order, the correlation area and the variance of the logarithmic distribution of the LPD power spectra are obtained. Differential diagnostics of rat skin carcinoma was realized.
The possibility of solving the inverse problem - extraction of information about linear and circular birefringence and dichroism of light scattering biological layers is considered. An analytical model of the optical anisotropy of depolarizing biological tissues is proposed. The Mueller matrix is represented as a superposition of differential matrices of the first and second orders. Interrelations between the parameters of phase and amplitude anisotropy and elements of a first-order differential matrix are obtained. The algorithms for the experimental measurement of the coordinate distributions of the elements of the polarization component of the Mueller matrix of depolarizing biological tissue are found. The symmetry and features of first-order differential matrices of fibrillar (muscle) and parenchymal (liver) depolarizing biological tissues are investigated. The interrelations between the statistical moments of the first and fourth orders and the features of the morphological polycrystalline structure of the biological tissues of various human organs are found. The ways of application of the differential Mueller-matrix mapping method in clinical diagnostics of the distribution of the phase and amplitude anisotropy distributions are proposed.