In this paper, we present a unifying framework for retinex that is able to reproduce many of the existing retinex implementations within a single model. The fundamental assumption, as shared with many retinex models, is that the observed image is a multiplication between the illumination and the true underlying reflectance of the object. Starting from Morel’s 2010 PDE model for retinex, where illumination is supposed to vary smoothly and where the reflectance is thus recovered from a hard-thresholded Laplacian of the observed image in a Poisson equation, we define our retinex model in similar but more general two steps. First, look for a filtered gradient that is the solution of an optimization problem consisting of two terms: The first term is a sparsity prior of the reflectance, such as the TV or H1 norm, while the second term is a quadratic fidelity prior of the reflectance gradient with respect to the observed image gradients. In a second step, since this filtered gradient almost certainly is not a consistent image gradient, we then look for a reflectance whose actual gradient comes close. Beyond unifying existing models, we are able to derive entirely novel retinex formulations by using more interesting non-local versions for the sparsity and fidelity prior. Hence we define within a single framework new retinex instances particularly suited for texture-preserving shadow removal, cartoon-texture decomposition, color and hyperspectral image enhancement.
In this paper we present a new method to track bone movements in stereoscopic X-ray image series of the knee joint. The method is based on two different X-ray image sets: a rotational series of acquisitions of the still subject knee that allows the tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional volume (model), and a stereoscopic image series of orthogonal projections as the subject performs movements. Tracking the movements of bones throughout the stereoscopic image series means to determine, for each frame, the best pose of every moving element (bone) previously identified in the 3D reconstructed model. The quality of a pose is reflected in the similarity between its theoretical projections and the actual radiographs.
We use direct Fourier reconstruction to approximate the three-dimensional volume of the knee joint. Then, to avoid the expensive computation of digitally rendered radiographs (DRR) for pose recovery, we develop a corollary to the 3-dimensional central-slice theorem and reformulate the tracking problem in the Fourier domain. Under the hypothesis of parallel X-ray beams, the heavy 2D-to-3D registration of projections in the signal domain is replaced by efficient slice-to-volume registration in the Fourier domain. Focusing on rotational movements, the translation-relevant phase information can be discarded and we only consider scalar Fourier amplitudes. The core of our motion tracking algorithm can be implemented as a classical frame-wise slice-to-volume registration task. Results on both synthetic and real images confirm the validity of our approach.