Remote sensing techniques now include the use of hyperspectral infrared imaging sensors covering the mid-and- long wave regions of the spectrum. They have found use in military surveillance applications due to their capability for detection and classification of a large variety of both naturally occurring and man-made substances. The images they produce reveal the spatial distributions of spectral patterns that reflect differences in material temperature, texture, and composition. A program is proposed for demonstrating proof-of-concept in using a portable sensor of this type for crime scene investigations. It is anticipated to be useful in discovering and documenting the affects of trauma and/or naturally occurring illnesses, as well as detecting blood spills, tire patterns, toxic chemicals, skin injection sites, blunt traumas to the body, fluid accumulations, congenital biochemical defects, and a host of other conditions and diseases. This approach can significantly enhance capabilities for determining the circumstances of death. Potential users include law enforcement organizations (police, FBI, CIA), medical examiners, hospitals/emergency rooms, and medical laboratories. Many of the image analysis algorithms already in place for hyperspectral remote sensing and crime scene investigations can be applied to the interpretation of data obtained in this program.
The Jonker-Volgenant-Castanon (JVC) assignment algorithm was used by Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) for track association in the Rotorcraft Pilot's Associate (RPA) program. RPA is Army Aviation's largest science and technology program, involving an integrated hardware/software system approach for a next generation helicopter containing advanced sensor equipments and applying artificial intelligence `associate' technologies. ATL is responsible for the multisensor, multitarget, onboard/offboard track fusion. McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems is the prime contractor and Lockheed Martin Federal Systems is responsible for developing much of the cognitive decision aiding and controls-and-displays subsystems. RPA is scheduled for flight testing beginning in 1997. RPA is unique in requiring real-time tracking and fusion for large numbers of highly-maneuverable ground (and air) targets in a target-dense environment. It uses diverse sensors and is concerned with a large area of interest. Target class and identification data is tightly integrated with spatial and kinematic data throughout the processing. Because of platform constraints, processing hardware for track fusion was quite limited. No previous experience using JVC in this type environment had been reported. ATL performed extensive testing of the JVC, concentrating on error rates and run- times under a variety of conditions. These included wide ranging numbers and types of targets, sensor uncertainties, target attributes, differing degrees of target maneuverability, and diverse combinations of sensors. Testing utilized Monte Carlo approaches, as well as many kinds of challenging scenarios. Comparisons were made with a nearest-neighbor algorithm and a new, proprietary algorithm (the `Competition' algorithm). The JVC proved to be an excellent choice for the RPA environment, providing a good balance between speed of operation and accuracy of results.
Proc. SPIE. 1297, Hybrid Image and Signal Processing II
KEYWORDS: Signal to noise ratio, Neural networks, Signal processing, Interference (communication), Image processing, Signal detection, Detection and tracking algorithms, Transform theory, Fourier transforms, Radar
We present a neural network algorithm for the detection and classification of transients in noise. The algorithm is a feed-forward three layered network capable of training and testing in a single pass. It benefits from the use of a time-frequency representation that conveys temporal information about the signal. 1.