Advancing technology in detector arrays, flat panel displays, and digital image processing provides new opportunities to expand imaging applications and enhance system performance. Technical managers and design engineers are faced with evaluating the cost, weight, and performance of an ever-expanding selection of technology options. This tutorial text provides the theory, procedures, and information necessary to evaluate and compare the performance of available imaging technologies. Part I updates the earlier work presented in Analysis of Sampled Imaging Systems (2000). Part II discusses performance evaluation of electro-optical imagers. Part III provides computer programs (on a supplemental CD-ROM) and up-to-date information on detector arrays, optics, and display options.
The book covers a variety of display formats and interfaces, and provides detailed information on available focal plane arrays (FPAs). Particular emphasis is placed on theory and practice for the wide variety of available infrared FPAs. Technologies represented include InSb, HgCdTe, QWIP, and uncooled thermal arrays. Information is provided on the quantum efficiency, blur, crosstalk, and noise characteristics of each technology. The detector and array dimensions of available FPAs are provided. The information on optics, display, and FPA subassemblies allows the model user to make quick and realistic performance assessments of electro-optical imager designs.
This is a follow-up work to analyze completely the detectability of the buried mines for the spectral regions extending from Visible/Near IR (VNIR) to Longwave IR (LWIR). Similar to previous work focusing on the VNIR region (1) this paper presents the quantitative detectability of the buried mines in the 3-5)mum and 8-12)mum regions. Specifically, this paper presents a statistical analysis for the buried mines in specified spectral regions for various soils and burial durations. As shown in the previous work (1) the performance based on the single hypothesis test using the distance measure was better than the intensity thresholding method. This paper focuses on only the distance measure method for statistical analysis of the data, and subsequently, classification to quantify the detectability of the buried mines in the 3 to 5 and 8 to 12 micron regions.
This paper identifies the optimal bands in the 3 to 5 micron region for surface mines for the lightweight airborne detection (LAMBD) sysem. Specifically, this paper focuses on the analysis to identify the optimum bands in the 3 to 5 micron region which can be used in a filter wheel implementation in an attempt to add the multi-band capabilities to enhance the detection performance for various background, times of day, while lessening the weight/size/power problem in a lightweight airborne mine detection (LAMBD) system. The analysis includes the hyperspectral signatures of various mines and backgrounds, the contrast between mines and backgrounds for various spectral regions, different times of day, and differential heights simulating sensor airborne scenarios. This paper uses data collected with a Design and Prototypes Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer (D&P) mounted 3m above the ground on the Mobile Sensor Platform (MSP) at a temperate test site. The total number of signatures used was 1000 for mines and 1000 for backgrounds.
Third generation focal plane arrays are being actively developed for the U.S. Army and other branches of the Department of Defense. The objective is to ensure that future soldiers will have superior night-fighting equipment. The requirements defined by this objective and the technology under development to support a demonstration of this capability is described. Issues associated with the development and exploitation of the high-performance cooled component of a family of third generation imager systems are discussed. Also discussed are two classes of uncooled imagers; one having high resolution and medium-high performance, and the second being very low cost.
Second generation forward looking infrared sensors, based on either parallel scanning, long wave (8 - 12 um) time delay and integration HgCdTe detectors or mid wave (3 - 5 um), medium format staring (640 X 480 pixels) InSb detectors, are being fielded. The science and technology community is now turning its attention toward the definition of a future third generation of FLIR sensors, based on emerging research and development efforts. Modeled third generation sensor performance demonstrates a significant improvement in performance over second generation, resulting in enhanced lethality and survivability on the future battlefield. In this paper we present the current thinking on what third generation sensors systems will be and the resulting requirements for third generation focal plane array detectors. Three classes of sensors have been identified. The high performance sensor will contain a megapixel or larger array with at least two colors. Higher operating temperatures will also be the goal here so that power and weight can be reduced. A high performance uncooled sensor is also envisioned that will perform somewhere between first and second generation cooled detectors, but at significantly lower cost, weight, and power. The final third generation sensor is a very low cost micro sensor. This sensor can open up a whole new IR market because of its small size, weight, and cost. Future unattended throwaway sensors, micro UAVs, and helmet mounted IR cameras will be the result of this new class.