In this paper we address the problems of video transmission in error prone environments. A novel error-resilient method is proposed that uses a data embedding scheme for header parameters in video coding standards, such as MPEG-2 and H.263. In case of requiring taking the loss of data information into account except for header errors, the video decoder hides visual degradation as well as possible, employing an error concealment method using an affine transform. Header information is very important because syntax elements, tables, and decoding processes all depend on the values of the header information. Therefore, transmission errors in header information can result in serious visual degradation of the output video and also cause an abnormal decoding process. In the proposed method, the header parameters are embedded into the least significant bits (LSB) of the quantized DCT coefficients. Then, when errors occur in the header field of the compressed bitstream, the decoder can accurately recover the corrupted header parameters if the embedded information is extracted correctly. The error concealment technique employed in this paper uses motion estimation considering actual motions, such as rotation, magnification, reduction, and parallel motion, in moving pictures. Experimental results show that the proposed error-resilient method can effectively reconstruct the original video sequence without any additional bits or modifications to the video coding standard and the error concealment method can produce a higher PSNR value and better subjective video quality, estimating the motion of lost data more accurately.
A new error detection and correction method is proposed that relies on the correlations among the syntax parameters of an MPEG-2 bitstream. Since MPEG-2 has led to a variety of applications, the MPEG-2 video specification is quite flexible. The header parameters in a video-coding standard are very important, as the syntax elements, tables, and decoding processes all depend on the values of the header information. Therefore, transmission errors in the header information not only result in a serious visual degradation of the output video, but also cause an abnormal decoding process. A number of error detection and correction techniques have already been developed to recover the MPEG-2 visual quality. However, since most of these methods only consider macroblock data information including quantized DCT coefficients, they are unable to produce good results with videos that include errors in the header information. Accordingly, the current paper proposes a method for detecting and correcting bit errors in headers based on the correlations between header parameters, between consecutive pictures, and between macroblock data and header parameters. As a result, even if bit errors are generated in header parameters, which are crucial to successful decoding, experimental results showed that the proposed header error detection and correction method can improve the video quality without increasing the transmission bit rate.