Surgical resection remains the primary curative intervention for cancer treatment. However, the occurrence of a residual tumor after resection is very common, leading to the recurrence of the disease and the need for re-resection. We develop a surgical Google Glass navigation system that combines near infrared fluorescent imaging and ultrasonography for intraoperative detection of sites of tumor and assessment of surgical resection boundaries, well as for guiding sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping and biopsy. The system consists of a monochromatic CCD camera, a computer, a Google Glass wearable headset, an ultrasonic machine and an array of LED light sources. All the above components, except the Google Glass, are connected to a host computer by a USB or HDMI port. Wireless connection is established between the glass and the host computer for image acquisition and data transport tasks. A control program is written in C++ to call OpenCV functions for image calibration, processing and display. The technical feasibility of the system is tested in both tumor simulating phantoms and in a human subject. When the system is used for simulated phantom resection tasks, the tumor boundaries, invisible to the naked eye, can be clearly visualized with the surgical Google Glass navigation system. This system has also been used in an IRB approved protocol in a single patient during SLN mapping and biopsy in the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, demonstrating the ability to successfully localize and resect all apparent SLNs. In summary, our tumor simulating phantom and human subject studies have demonstrated the technical feasibility of successfully using the proposed goggle navigation system during cancer surgery.
Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging technique can provide precise and real-time information about tumor location
during a cancer resection surgery. However, many intraoperative fluorescence imaging systems are based on wearable
devices or stand-alone displays, leading to distraction of the surgeons and suboptimal outcome. To overcome these
limitations, we design a projective fluorescence imaging system for surgical navigation. The system consists of a LED
excitation light source, a monochromatic CCD camera, a host computer, a mini projector and a CMOS camera. A
software program is written by C++ to call OpenCV functions for calibrating and correcting fluorescence images
captured by the CCD camera upon excitation illumination of the LED source. The images are projected back to the
surgical field by the mini projector. Imaging performance of this projective navigation system is characterized in a tumor
simulating phantom. Image-guided surgical resection is demonstrated in an ex-vivo chicken tissue model. In all the
experiments, the projected images by the projector match well with the locations of fluorescence emission. Our
experimental results indicate that the proposed projective navigation system can be a powerful tool for pre-operative
surgical planning, intraoperative surgical guidance, and postoperative assessment of surgical outcome. We have
integrated the optoelectronic elements into a compact and miniaturized system in preparation for further clinical
The polarized emission behaviors of the Eu3+ doped azo-polymer waveguide were reported in this paper. Affected by the azobenzene groups in the photoinduced orientation process by the 532nm linearly polarized laser, the ligands were realigned orderly perpendicular to the direction of the orientation direction. This leads to the polarized absorption and emission of the waveguide in the orientation direction. By an m-line apparatus based on the prism coupling technique, two guided modes propagation were observed in the waveguide at 650nm in TE polarizations.
A novel copolymer optical fiber with high azobenzene concentration is reported (more than 3.2 mol %). The orientation process of the preform was fitted with corrected bi-exponential equation. Compared with the doped one, the photosensitivity of this kind of copolymer optical fiber preform is analyzed. The influence of azobenzene concentrations and write conditions on photosensitivity of copolymerized PMMA was analyzed. Then, long-period of 120um birefringent grating was fabricated in the single mode fiber with core refractive index of 1.485 (at wavelength of 1.5um), and relative index difference delta of 0.008. The duty cycle is 50%, and the refractive index change in the exposed area is about 4*10-4 for the ordinary or extraordinary ray.
Inexpensive PMMA based Polymer Optical Fiber (POF) has the feature of a large core diameter, high numerical aperture and great flexibility, thus allow low connection cost and cheap LED source. These advantages make it a promising candidate for short distance communication. In this article, coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) test was performed with commercially available POF using its low loss transmission window. Light of two different wavelengths (650nm and 530nm) were sending on a single POF. Here 650nm red light was used for duplex IP data digital signal transmission and 530nm green light was used for voice signal transmission. Light sources are LEDs. A POF Coupler (Splitter) of 1:1 ratio was employed as multiplexer and prisms were used for demultiplexing. The channel isolation and insert loss of both channels were measured, for 650nm channel they are 20.5dB and 17.65dB, for 530nm channel they are 19.16dB and 20.55dB.