By tailoring the dispersion curve of surface plasmons (SPs) of a thin metallic film surrounded by dielectric half-spaces, it is shown that the group velocity of the symmetric mode is always positive, while the group velocity of the anti-symmetric mode can be negative. Consequently, the forward and backward propagation of SPs, in which the energy flow is respectively parallel or antiparallel to the wave vector, can be realized. The physical origin of the intriguing backward SPs is given. Furthermore, schemes for the negative refraction and imaging of SPs are proposed by incorporating two plasmon modes with group velocities of opposite signs.
We employed micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) techniques to fabricate parallel sub-wavelength thin-wire structures of metals on elastomeric matrices. From the transmission measurement by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, we observed the depressed plasma frequencies of these thin-wire structures at terahertz (THz) ranges. Furthermore, the behavior of depressed plasma frequencies is very sensitive to the polarization of the applied field. The reasons that these engineered materials exhibit unprecedented properties not observed in nature can be interpreted by two factors: the diluted electron densities and the enhancement of electron mass. In addition, the plasma frequencies are readily tunable over a broad frequency range by extending the elastomeric matrices to change their periodicity. These novel properties of tunable and polarization-dependant plasma frequencies at THz ranges promise abundant striking applications in THz optics.
Micro-stereolithography (μSL) is capable of fabrication of highly complex three-dimensional (3D) microstructures by selectively photo-induced polymerization from the monomer resin. However, during the evaporative drying of structures from liquid resin, the 3D microstructures often collapse due to the capillary force. In this work, a theoretical model is developed to analyze the deflection and adhesion between thin polymer beams under capillary force. The
detachment length of the test structures and adhesion energy of a typical μSL polymer (HDDA) are obtained experimentally which are important for MEMS structure design. Finally, we successfully developed a sublimation process to release the 3D microstructures without the adhesion.