The MARSIS antenna booms are constructed using lenticular hinges between straight boom segments in a novel design which allows the booms to be extremely lightweight while retaining a high stiffness and well defined structural properties once they are deployed. Lenticular hinges are elegant in form but are complicated to model as they deploy dynamically and require highly specialized nonlinear techniques founded on carefully measured mechanical properties. Results from component level testing were incorporated into a highly specialized ADAMS model which employed an automated damping algorithm to account for the discontinuous boom lengths formed during the deployment. Additional models with more limited capabilities were also developed in both DADS and ABAQUS to verify the ADAMS model computations and to help better define the numerical behavior of the models at the component and system levels. A careful comparison is made between the ADAMS and DADS models in a series of progressive steps in order to verify their numerical results. Different trade studies considered in the model development are outlined to demonstrate a suitable level of model fidelity. Some model sensitivities to various parameters are explored using subscale and full system models. Finally, some full system DADS models are exercised to illustrate the limitations of traditional modeling techniques for variable geometry systems which were overcome in the ADAMS model.
The Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer (TPF-I) mission requires a set of formation-flying collector telescopes that direct the incoming light to a beam combiner where the beams are combined and detected to identify habitable planets. A baseline TPF collector design, using a primary mirror of 4.2 meters in diameter, is used here to conduct a dynamic study. The objective is to investigate the effects of dynamic response of the spacecraft on the system optical performance at the presence of disturbances that arise from the reaction wheel assembly and thruster loading, respectively. Frequency responses where the frequency is associated with the flywheel speed are presented in the paper. The results focus on the surface oscillation of the primary mirror and the point at which the secondary mirror is located. Transient response simulations under the baseline four thruster-assembly configuration were conducted using various duty cycles and thrust levels determined by the TPF formation rotation requirements. This paper will also describe an investigation conducted using new IMOS (Integrated Modeling of Optical Systems), which is an open, multi-disciplinary, and Matlab-based dynamic/optical system simulation code. A pre-processor that is able to generate the sub-structure modal models required by ISYSD (Integrated System Dynamics) was developed in new IMOS. ISYSD is used to develop a high-fidelity system dynamic model by integrating the sub-structure modal models. Finally, the paper will summarize current and future work in order to meet the TPF dynamic requirements.
This overview paper describes the system design of the structurally-connected interferometer (SCI) concept studied for the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) project. This paper covers progress since August 2003 and serves as an update to a paper presented at that month's SPIE conference, "Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets". SCI trade studies conducted since mid-2003 have focused on key factors driving overall flight segment mass and performance, including launch vehicle packaging, structural design, and instrument layout. This paper summarizes the results of the recent design trades, with discussion of the primary requirements that drive the baseline design concept.
High and low intensity dynamic environments experienced by a spacecraft during launch and on-orbit operations, respectively, induce structural loads and motions, which are difficult to reliably predict. Structural dynamics in low- and mid-frequency bands are sensitive to component interface uncertainty and non-linearity as evidenced in laboratory testing and flight operations. Analytical tools for prediction of linear system response are not necessarily adequate for reliable prediction of mid-frequency band dynamics and analysis of measured laboratory and flight data. A new MATLAB toolbox, designed to address the key challenges of mid-frequency band dynamics, is introduced in this paper. Finite-element models of major subassemblies are defined following rational frequency-wavelength guidelines. For computational efficiency, these subassemblies are described as linear, component mode models. The complete structural system model is composed of component mode subassemblies and linear or non-linear joint descriptions. Computation and display of structural dynamic responses are accomplished employing well-established, stable numerical methods, modern signal processing procedures and descriptive graphical tools. Parametric sensitivity and Monte-Carlo based system identification tools are used to reconcile models with experimental data and investigate the effects of uncertainties. Models and dynamic responses are exported for employment in applications, such as detailed structural integrity and mechanical-optical-control performance analyses.
This paper describes the basic structural design of the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) Structurally Connected Interferometer concept developed within the Jet Propulsion Laboratory design team. Descriptions of the key structural components, optical elements, and basic load paths are included. Key structural requirements related to launch loads and on-orbit stability and alignment are identified. The analysis results for the baseline design are shown for both launch configuration and the deployed, on-orbit configuration. The finite element models are described with preliminary results shown. Excitation of the structure and the optical train caused by assumed external disturbances are shown for a preliminary analysis. Future work is identified.