Formula for a quick tolerance estimate of transmission variation in optical system with scanning pupil is developed. The estimate uses statistics of surface coating degradation due to random errors in layer thickness and refractive index. Example of using the tolerancing procedure on a sample optical system is presented and discussed.
Indium Tin Oxide, ITO, is the industry standard for transparent conductive coatings. As such, the common metrics for characterizing ITO performance are its transmission and conductivity/resistivity (or sheet resistance). In spite of its recurrent use in a broad range of technological applications, the performance of ITO itself is highly variable, depending on the method of deposition and chamber conditions, and a single well defined set of properties does not exist. This poses particular challenges for the incorporation of ITO in complex optical multilayer stacks while trying to maintain electronic performance. Complicating matters further, ITO suffers increased absorption losses in the NIR – making the ability to incorporate ITO into anti-reflective stacks crucial to optimizing overall optical performance when ITO is used in real world applications. In this work, we discuss the use of ITO in multilayer thin film stacks for applications from the visible to the NIR. In the NIR, we discuss methods to analyze and fine tune the film properties to account for, and minimize, losses due to absorption and to optimize the overall transmission of the multilayer stacks. The ability to obtain high transmission while maintaining good electrical properties, specifically low resistivity, is demonstrated. Trade-offs between transmission and conductivity with variation of process parameters are discussed in light of optimizing the performance of the final optical stack and not just with consideration to the ITO film itself.