In this paper, we report on the fabrication of Erbium doped waveguide amplifiers (EDWA's) using electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (ECR-PECVD). The salient process parameters are presented, as are the determination of the Er content through Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), and measurements of the film composition using elastic recoil detection (ERD), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS).
Monolithic integration of silicon micro-photonic devices with silicon microelectronics presents one potential solution to the interconnect bottleneck in deep submicron CMOS microprocessors. However, an inability to develop a robust silicon based electroluminescent (EL) technology continues to severely limit the feasibility of such a structure. Despite its promising photoluminescent (PL) properties, the erbium doped silicon rich silicon oxide material system has been only partly successful in EL devices owing to dielectric breakdown resulting from high field excitation requirements. However, PL data indicate that quantum confinement effects in this system enable it to overcome many of the luminescence quenching properties of bulk silicon based materials, while simultaneously offering the structural and chemical resilience which luminescent forms of silicon (eg. porous silicon) lack. However, it is now clear that the resolution of the current injection problem will require a detailed understanding of all known and especially potential luminescence excitation mechanisms. The present study compares PL measurements made for SiO<sub>x</sub>:Er (x less than or equal to 2) thin films grown by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Various compositions, containing erbium concentration below 1 atomic %, have been annealed over a range of temperatures between 600-1100 °C. The presence of excess silicon relative to SiO<sub>2</sub> is found to result in a 100 fold increase of the PL emission near 1540 nm, resulting from the <sup>4</sup>I<sub>13/2</sub> to <sup>4</sup>I<sub>15/2</sub> transition of the trivalent erbium ion, relative to a sample containing no silicon excess. It has been found that luminescent silicon nano-clusters can be formed throughout the range of anneal temperatures studied. A dense array of extremely small amorphous silicon clusters is found to result in an optimized sensitization of the PL at 1540 nm for annealing at 800°C. It is proposed that in some cases, silicon nano-clusters coupled to erbium ions do not emit their intrinsic luminescence. Various oxygen-based luminescent defects are identified in this study, and they seem to exhibit a coupling to silicon nano-cluster and erbium-related centres. Possible application of these films to recently developed field-effect EL devices is discussed.
The development of monolithically integrated optoelectronics in silicon has been hindered to date primarily because of silicon's inefficient optical emission properties. Recently, however, nanostructured systems exploiting quantum confinement effects have shown the potential to circumvent this problem. In this study, silicon-rich silicon oxide (SiO<sub>x</sub>, <i>x</i><2) thin films doped with erbium have been deposited on silicon substrates by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (ECR-PECVD). The formation of silicon nanoclusters along with optically active erbium ion complexes during high temperature annealing results in strong erbium photoluminescence near a wavelength of 1.54 μm. A portion of the deposition parameter space for the ECR-PECVD system has been mapped in an attempt to optimize the films for this luminescence. The resulting films ranged in composition from 0% to 22% excess silicon and 0.45% to 3.7% erbium, as determined by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. The effects of annealing were investigated between 600 <sup>o</sup>C and 1000 <sup>o</sup>C under flowing nitrogen gas. The 1.54μm emission was found to be enhanced by the presence of excess silicon, reaching a maximum at ~5-8 atomic % excess and an 800 <sup>o</sup>C anneal. This result strongly suggests the sensitization of infrared, erbium luminescence by silicon nanoclusters. The films exhibited an additional blueviolet light emission which has also been attributed to the erbium dopant. The visible and infrared luminescence signals were found to occur in inverse proportion to each other with the visible signal decreasing as the amount of silicon excess increases.
Silicon rich silicon oxide thin films have been fabricated by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Following their deposition, these films were subjected to thermal anneals at temperatures up to 1100°C for times of up to 120 minutes. Annealing of the films causes a phase separation of the material to form Si precipitates, which nucleate to form Si nanocrystals, within an amorphous SiO<sub>2</sub> matrix. The nucleation of the nanocrystals was analyzed as a function of the composition of the films, as determined by Rutherford backscattering and elastic recoil detection analysis experiments, and the annealing conditions. The bonding structure of the films was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Surface morphology, including analysis of the size and distribution of the nanocrystals, was determined through the use of atomic force microscopy. Spectroscopic ellipsometry, in the range from 600 to 1100 nm, was used to examine the effects of the formation of nanocrystals on the optical properties, i.e., index of refraction and extinction coefficient, of the films. Photoluminescence spectra were used to show that due to quantum confinement effects the nanocrystals
exhibit luminescence, making them a potential candidate for integrated photonic emitters.