We report the influence of bonding temperature on SU-8 to SU-8 bonding and report fabrication of a hybrid microelectromechanical-tunable filter (MEM-TF) using SU-8 bond pads. We demonstrate use of 2-µm-thick 50×50-µm2 SU-8 bond pads to attach 4.92-µm-thick 250×250-µm2 Al0.4Ga0.6As-GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) to polysilicon MUMPs® piston actuators. Advantages of this process include compatibility with hydrofluoric-acid-release chemistry, low-temperature/low-pressure bonding, simple bond-pad photolithography, 57% flip-bonded DBR yield, and 30% electrostatically actuatable hybrid MEM-TF yield.
We report and use our micro-electro-mechanically tunable vertical cavity surface emitting laser (MEM-TVCSEL) computer-aided design methodology to investigate the resonant frequency design space for monolithic and hybrid MEM-TVCSELs. For various initial optical air gap thickness, we examine the sensitivity of monolithic or hybrid
MEM-TVCSEL resonant frequency by simulating zero, two, and four percent variations in III-V material growth thickness. As expected, as initial optical airgap increases, tuning range decreases due to less coupling between the active region and the tuning mirror. However, each design has different resonant frequency sensitivity to variations in III-V growth parameters. In particular, since the monolithic design is comprised of III-V material, the shift in all growth thicknesses significantly shifts the resonant frequency response. However, for hybrid MEMTVCSELs, less shift results, since the lower reflector is an Au mirror with reflectivity independent of III-V growth variations. Finally, since the hybrid design is comprised of a MUMPS polysilicon mechanical actuator, pull-in voltage remains independent of the initial optical airgap between the tuning reflector and the III-V material. Conversely, as the initial airgap increases in the monolithic design, the pull-in voltage significantly increases.
We report our progress on the design and fabrication of electrostatically-actuated microelectromechanical (MEM) tunable wavelength filters and vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). We investigate both an all-semiconductor monolithic approach and a hybrid approach based on the combination of conventional polysilicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and III-V semiconductor thin-film distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and VCSEL structures. In the tunable hybrid structures the III-V semiconductor layers are flip-bonded onto specially designed polysilicon foundry MEMS structures and separated from their lattice-matched parent substrates by a novel post-bonding lift-off process.