The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), expected to launch in 2021, will be the next premier observatory for astronomers worldwide. It is optimized for infrared wavelengths and observation 1.5 million kilometers from Earth. JWST includes an Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) that contains the four main instruments used to observe deep space: Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam), Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec), Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI), and Fine Guidance Sensor/Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (FGS/NIRISS)<sup>1</sup>. <p> </p>JWST will make ultra-deep near-infrared surveys of the Universe to see back 13.5 billion years to “First Light” which occurred 100 – 250 million years after the Big Bang when the first stars and galaxies formed. Its ability to observe very high redshifts will enable astronomers to study the faintest galaxies, observe stars forming within clouds of dust, determine how galaxies evolved, and search for exoplanets<sup>1,2</sup>. <p> </p>JWST is extremely sensitive to even small amounts of contamination, which can directly cause degradation to performance of the telescope, and impact the mission lifetime. Contamination control has been an essential focus of this mission since conception of the JWST observatory<sup>3</sup>.
In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is a key NASA initiative to exploit resources at the site of planetary exploration for mission-critical consumables, propellants, and other supplies. The Resource Prospector mission, part of ISRU, is scheduled to launch in 2020 and will include a rover and lander hosting the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload for extracting and analyzing lunar resources, particularly low molecular weight volatiles for fuel, air, and water. RESOLVE contains the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem with a Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). RESOLVE subsystems, including the RP15 rover and LAVA, are in NASA’s Engineering Test Unit (ETU) phase to assure that all vital components of the payload are space-flight rated and will perform as expected during the mission. Integration and testing of LAVA mass spectrometry verified reproducibility and accuracy of the candidate MS for detecting nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. The RP15 testing comprised volatile analysis of water-doped simulant regolith to enhance integration of the RESOLVE payload with the rover. Multiple tests show the efficacy of the GC to detect 2% and 5% water-doped samples.