We discuss how Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) fabrication techniques can be used to build scalable solid-state quantum computers in diamond with either room temperature operation, or low temperature operation with photonic control. For this discussion we consider nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers where the qubits are electron and/or nuclear spins. To achieve scalability the NV centers are placed in well-defined locations using ion implantation, and are
controlled using optical and/or microwave excitation as well as localized static electric and/or magnetic fields.
Detection and manipulation of single electron spin states in solids has recently been given much attention for applications to quantum computing. In this architecture, the inter-atomic spacing of spins in a solid is an important parameter. One way to control the inter-atomic spacing is to implant spin impurities in pairs via ion implantation. Here, we discuss a proof-of-principle demonstration in synthetic diamond, wherein N<sub>2</sub> was implanted to create pairs of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers.