Here we experimentally characterize photonic crystal nanolasers where the first endhole of the mirror has been systamatically shifted. FDTD simulations of similar passive cavities are done in order to find the expected evolution of the quality factor. We find that the predicted increase in the quality factor of the equivalent passive cavities leads to a decrease in the threshold power of the active nanolasers as expected. The maximum output power for varying endhole shifts has also been investigated and shifting the holes to optimize quality factor leads to lower maximum output power, when measuring from the top. The mirror of the photonic crystal cavity is further investigated as the mirror phase and penetration depth into the mirror are determined as a function of the endhole shift.
The combination of nonlinear and integrated photonics enables applications in telecommunication, metrology, spectroscopy, and quantum information science. Pioneer works in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) has shown huge potentials of integrated nonlinear photonics. However, silicon suffers two-photon absorption (TPA) in the telecom wavelengths around 1550 nm, which hampers its practical applications. To get a superior nonlinear performance, an ideal integrated waveguide platform should combine a high material nonlinearity, low material absorption (linear and nonlinear), a strong light confinement, and a mature fabrication technology. Aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) was identified as a promising candidate for nonlinear applications since 1994. It offers a large transparency window, a high refractive index (n≈3.3), a nonlinear index (n2) on the order of 10<sup>-17</sup> m2W<sup>−1</sup>, and the ability to engineer the material bandgap to mitigate TPA. In spite of the high intrinsic nonlinearity, conventional deep-etched AlGaAs waveguides exhibit low effective nonlinearity due to the vertical low-index contrast. To take full advantage of the high intrinsic linear and nonlinear index of AlGaAs material, we reconstructed the conventional AlGaAs waveguide into a high index contrast layout that has been realized in the AlGaAs-on-insulator (AlGaAsOI) platform. We have demonstrated low loss waveguides with an ultra-high nonlinear coefficient and high Q microresonators in such a platform. Owing to the high confinement waveguide layout and state-of-the-art nanolithography techniques, the dispersion properties of the AlGaAsOI waveguide can be tailored efficiently and accurately by altering the waveguide shape or dimension, which enables various applications in signal processing and generation, which will be reviewed in this paper.
In this communication, we report on the design, fabrication, and testing of Silicon Nitride on Insulator (SiNOI) and Aluminum-Gallium-Arsenide (AlGaAs) on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nonlinear photonic circuits for continuum generation in Silicon (Si) photonics. As recently demonstrated, the generation of frequency continua and supercontinua can be used to overcome the intrinsic limitations of nowadays silicon photonics notably concerning the heterogeneous integration of III-V on SOI lasers for datacom and telecom applications. By using the Kerr nonlinearity of monolithic silicon nitride and heterointegrated GaAs-based alloys on SOI, the generation of tens or even hundreds of new optical frequencies can be obtained in dispersion tailored waveguides, thus providing an all-optical alternative to the heterointegration of hundreds of standalone III-V on Si lasers. In our work, we present paths to energy-efficient continua generation on silicon photonics circuits. Notably, we demonstrate spectral broadening covering the full C-band via Kerrbased self-phase modulation in SiNOI nanowires featuring full process compatibility with Si photonic devices. Moreover, AlGaAs waveguides are heterointegrated on SOI in order to dramatically reduce (x1/10) thresholds in optical parametric oscillation and in the power required for supercontinuum generation under pulsed pumping. The manufacturing techniques allowing the monolithic co-integration of nonlinear functionalities on existing CMOS-compatible Si photonics for both active and passive components will be shown. Experimental evidence based on self-phase modulation show SiNOI and AlGaAs nanowires capable of generating wide-spanning frequency continua in the C-Band. This will pave the way for low-threshold power-efficient Kerr-based comb- and continuum- sources featuring compatibility with Si photonic integrated circuits (Si-PICs).
MEMS VCSELs are one of the most promising swept source (SS) lasers for optical coherence tomography (OCT) and one of the best candidates for future integration with endoscopes, surgical probes and achieving an integrated OCT system. However, the current MEMS-based SS are processed on the III-V wafers, which are small, expensive and challenging to work with. Furthermore, the actuating part, i.e., the MEMS, is on the top of the structure which causes a strong dependence on packaging to decrease its sensitivity to the operating environment. This work addresses these design drawbacks and proposes a novel design framework. The proposed device uses a high contrast grating mirror on a Si MEMS stage as the bottom mirror, all of which is defined in an SOI wafer. The SOI wafer is then bonded to an InP III-V wafer with the desired active layers, thereby sealing the MEMS. Finally, the top mirror, a dielectric DBR (7 pairs of TiO<sub>2</sub> - SiO<sub>2</sub>), is deposited on top. The new device is based on a silicon substrate with MEMS defined on a silicon membrane in an enclosed cavity. Thus the device is much more robust than the existing MEMS VCSELs. This design also enables either a two-way actuation on the MEMS or a smaller optical cavity (pull-away design), i.e., wider FSR (Free Spectral Range) to increase the wavelength sweep. Fabrication of the proposed device is outlined and the results of device characterization are reported.
We present our work on photonic crystal membrane devices exploiting Fano resonance between a line-defect waveguide and a side coupled nanocavity. Experimental demonstration of fast and compact all-optical switches for wavelength-conversion is reported. It is shown how the use of an asymmetric structure in combination with cavity-enhanced nonlinearity can be used to realize non-reciprocal transmission at ultra-low power and with large bandwidth. A novel type of laser structure, denoted a Fano laser, is discussed in which one of the mirrors is based on a Fano resonance. Finally, the design, fabrication and characterization of grating couplers for efficient light coupling in and out of the indium phosphide photonic crystal platform is discussed.
In the talk we will discuss the role of disorder-induced losses on the threshold of line-defect photonic crystal lasers. Experiments reveal an optimum cavity length, on the order of 10 unit cells, where the laser threshold density attains a minimum. The results can be explained by considering the role of slow-light propagation on the threshold of a photonic crystal laser. We will also discuss the possibility of alleviating this dependence on cavity length by replacing one of the mirrors with a narrow-band mirror based on a Fano resonance.
We present theoretical and experimental results for a novel laser structure where one of the mirrors is realized by a Fano resonance between the laser waveguide and a side-coupled nano cavity. The laser may be modulated via the mirror resonance, enabling ultrahigh modulatioon speeds and pulse generation. Experimental results for a photonic crystal structure with quantum dot active layers will be presented.
The paper presents the design and fabrication of an optically pumped 1550nm tunable MEMS VCSEL with an enclosed MEMS. The MEMS is defined in SOI and the active material, an InP wafer with quantum wells are bonded to the SOI and the last mirror is made from the deposition of dielectric materials. The design brings in flexibility to fabricate MEMS VCSELs over a wider range of wavelengths. The paper discusses results from the simulations and bonding results from fabrication. The device will push the boundaries for wavelength sweep speed and bandwidth.
In this study, we have investigated metal-organic vapor phase epitaxial nano-patterned selective area growth of InGaAs/InP on non-planar (001) InP surfaces. Due to high etching resistance and the small molecular size of negative tone electron beam HSQ resist, the protection mask formed in HSQ has small feature sizes in ten nanometers scale and allow realization of in-situ etching. As was observed in the SAG regime, in-situ etching of InP by carbon tetrabromide leads to formation of self-limited structures. By altering etching time, the groove shape can be changed from a triangular trench to a trapeze. Another appealing aspect of in situ etching is that the shape of InGaAs can be tuned from a crescent to a triangular or a line by varying growth parameters. Quantum well wires can be fabricated by growing directly in the bottom of V-shaped groove. In addition, changes of mask orientations lead to anistropic or isotropic character of etching. The investigated technique of nano-patterned selective area growth allows obtaining different profiles of structures and different quantum structures such as quantum well or wires in the same growth run. To investigate the shape and crystalline quality of the active material, the cross-sectional geometry was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The optical properties were carried out at room temperature using micro-photoluminescence setup. The results showed different deposition rates for openings oriented along [0-11] and [0-1-1] directions with higher rate along [0-1-1]. The fabricated active material was incorporated into photonic crystal waveguides.
The development of epitaxial technology for the fabrication of quantum dot (QD) gain material operating in the 1.55 μm wavelength range is a key requirement for the evolvement of telecommunication. High performance QD material demonstrated on GaAs only covers the wavelength region 1-1.35 μm. In order to extract the QD benefits for the longer telecommunication wavelength range the technology of QD fabrication should be developed for InP based materials. In our work, we take advantage of both QD fabrication methods Stranski-Krastanow (SK) and selective area growth (SAG) employing block copolymer lithography. Due to the lower lattice mismatch of InAs/InP compared to InAs/GaAs, InP based QDs have a larger diameter and are shallower compared to GaAs based dots. This shape causes low carrier localization and small energy level separation which leads to a high threshold current, high temperature dependence, and low laser quantum efficiency. Here, we demonstrate that with tailored growth conditions, which suppress surface migration of adatoms during the SK QD formation, much smaller base diameter (13.6nm versus 23nm) and an improved aspect ratio are achieved. In order to gain advantage of non-strain dependent QD formation, we have developed SAG, for which the growth occurs only in the nano-openings of a mask covering the wafer surface. In this case, a wide range of QD composition can be chosen. This method yields high purity material and provides significant freedom for reducing the aspect ratio of QDs with the possibility to approach an ideal QD shape.
Photonic crystal defect waveguides with embedded active layers containing single or multiple quantum wells or quantum
dots have been fabricated. Spontaneous emission spectra are enhanced close to the bandedge, consistently with the
enhancement of gain by slow light effects. These are promising results for future compact devices for terabit/s
communication, such as miniaturised semiconductor optical amplifiers and mode-locked lasers.
This paper reports the fabrication and the characterisation of a 10 GHz two-section passively mode-locked quantum dash
laser emitting at 1.59 μm. The potential of the device's mode-locking is investigated through an analytical model taking
into account both the material parameters and the laser geometry. Results show that the combination of a small absorbing
section coupled to a high absorption coefficient can lead to an efficient mode-locking. Characterisation shows mode-locking
operation though output pulses are found to be strongly chirped. Noise measurements demonstrate that the single
side band phase noise does not exceed -80 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset leading to an average timing jitter as low as 800 fs.
As compared to single QW lasers these results constitute a significant improvement and are of first importance for
applications in optical telecommunications.
Recent achievements in self-organized quantum dots (QDs) have demonstrated their potential for long-wavelength laser
applications. However, the wavelength of QD structures pseudomorphically grown on GaAs substrate is typically not
longer than 1.3 μm. In this work we study a novel approach for extension of the spectral range of GaAs-based diode
lasers up to 1.5 μm. We use a sensitivity of QD emission to the band gap energy of surrounding matrix. The method is
based on formation of a QD array inside a metamorphic InGaAs epilayer. Growth regimes of metamorphic buffer that
enable mirror-like surface morphology in combination with effective dislocation trapping are discussed. Structural and
optical properties of metamorphic InAs/InGaAs QDs are presented. It is shown that the wavelength of QD emission can
be controllably tuned in the 1.37-1.58 μm range by varying the composition of metamorphic InGaAs matrix. Details of
formation, fabrication, and characterization of metamorphic-based diode lasers are also presented. We demonstrate a
lasing wavelength as long as 1.48 μm in the 20-80 °C temperature interval. The minimum threshold current density is
800 A/cm<sup>2</sup> at RT. The external differential efficiency and pulsed power maximum exceed 50% and 7 W, respectively.
Quantum dot (QD) diode lasers attract currently much attention due to their ability to emit light in the advanced near-
infrared region at extraordinarily low threshold current densities. A vertical-cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL),
having a superior beam quality, improved temperature stability, low threshold current, and cost-effective planar
fabrication, is also an attractive device variant. Here we discuss the state of the art of these lasers intended for the use in
1.3-μm fiber-optic communications. The discussion is centered on an InAs/GaAs semiconductor QD system. Basic
issues of the QD synthesis in the system are addressed. The achievement of the control over the 1.3-μm QD emission is
demonstrated. Both, wide-stripe and single-mode edge-emitting lasers are described. The lasers designed have a very low
threshold current density, high differential efficiency, and a high output power. Narrow-stripe 1.3-μm QD lasers generate
in a single mode, have a record-low threshold current, and produce the continuous-wave (CW) power output in excess of
100 mW. Also, we report on QD VCSELs emitting at 1.3 μm. The design of their cavity and active region are described.
The room-temperature CW output power of these lasers is as high as 2 mW. Both, the edge- and surface-emitting lasers
satisfy the demands of the fiber optical communication technology.
Recent results on molecular-beam epitaxy growth of the quantum dot InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures for long-wavelength lasers on GaAs substrates are presented. As a result of optimization of the growth procedure for active region and emitter layers low-threshold current density (45 - 80 A/cm<sup>2</sup>) long-wavelength (1.27 - 1.3 μm) laser diodes may be fabricated with high reproducibility.