Mueller polarimetric imaging appeared to be very promising to detect the modifications in the microstructure of the uterine cervix due to the development of a precancerous lesion, thus providing very useful information for diagnostics to which practitioner cannot to access with classic color imaging. The first multispectral Mueller Polarimetric Colposcope (MPC) for the in vivo analysis of the uterine cervix will be presented. It has been obtained by miniaturizing a Mueller polarimetric imaging system and “grafting” it on a conventional colposcope, which is a low magnification binocular system, currently used in medical practice to examine the uterine cervix for detection of precancerous lesions. The multispectral MPC enables to obtain reliable Mueller polarimetric images in less than 2 seconds with a spatial resolution of 100 μm simultaneously at 450, 550 and 650 nm. Currently, it is being tested in vivo in the University Hospital of Kremlin Bicêtre in France. In order to evaluate the performance of the technique, polarimetric images need to be compared with histological analyses of biopsies. The procedure developed in collaboration with medical doctors to obtain an accurate correlation between polarimetric images and biopsies will be described.