Adequate representation of data is crucial for modeling any type of data. To faithfully present and describe the relevant
section of the world it is necessary to select the method that can easily be implemented on a computer system which will
help in further description allowing reasoning. The main objective of this contribution is to present methods of
knowledge representation using categorial approach. Next to identify the main advantages for computer implementation.
Categorical aspect of knowledge representation is considered in semantic networks realisation. Such method borrows
already known metaphysics properties for data modeling process. The potential topics of further development of
categorical semantic networks implementations are also underlined.
It has been recognized that ontologies are a semantic version of world wide web and can be found in knowledge-based
systems. A recent time survey of this field also suggest that practical artificial intelligence systems may be motivated by
this research. Especially strong artificial intelligence as well as concept of homo computer can also benefit from their
use. The main objective of this contribution is to present and review already created ontologies and identify the main
advantages which derive such approach for knowledge management systems. We would like to present what ontological
engineering borrows from metaphysics and what a feedback it can provide to natural language processing, simulations
and modelling. The potential topics of further development from philosophical point of view is also underlined.
Expert Systems are found to be very promising as an important advisory tool. They can be useful in different situations
where human expert is not available and decision should be undertaken quickly. Expert systems can also be useful in
medicine to help doctors or even non-trained personnel (when the doctor is not available). These systems are important
in clinical practice and could help in rapid finding of etiology and treatment. To fulfill such requirement in this
contribution, we discuss an implementation of expert system, which is written in Prolog language. Since this language
has its syntactical limitations, we have developed a general architecture of a shell type, to overcome these difficulties.
Next, we have demonstrated its practical utility, by applying the knowledge taken from medical practice.
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), according to epidemiological data, is a main reason of social blindness
among elderly people in developed countries. There are two forms of AMD: dry and wet. The first one is of good
prognosis with low possibility of serious visual deterioration, while the second one usually leads to quick and severe
visual impairment. The aim of our investigations is to analyse results of so called real-life treatment of wet AMD. We
analysed outcomes of our patients treated with intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF drugs: Lucentis (61 patients) and
Avastin (78 patients). We analysed changes in visual acuity (functional effect) and central retinal thickness (anatomic
effect). Both drugs occurred to be efficient in treatment of wet form of AMD, however results were more satisfying in
patients with better baseline visual acuity. In our approach we used R environment - an integrated suite of software
facilities for data analysis and graphics.