In this article, we report our results on 1.3&mgr;m VCSELs for optical interconnection applications. Room
temperature continuous-wave lasing operation is demonstrated for top emitting oxide-confined devices with three
different active materials, highly strained InGaAs/GaAs(A) and GaInNAs/GaAs (B) multiple quantum wells (MQW) or
InAs/GaAs (C) quantum dots (QD). Conventional epitaxial structures grown respectively by Metal Organic Vapour
Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE), Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and MBE, contain fully doped GaAs/AlGaAs DBRs. All
three epilayers are processed in the same way. Current and optical confinement are realized by selective wet oxidation.
Circular apertures from 2 (micron)m to 16 (micron)m diameters are defined.
At room temperature and in continuous wave operation, all three systems exhibit lasing operation at
wavelengths above 1 275nm and reached 1 300nm for material (A). Typical threshold currents are in the range [1-
10]mA and are strongly dependent firstly on oxide diameter and secondly on temperature. Room temperature cw
maximum output power corresponds respectively to 1.77mW, 0.5mW and 0.6mW. By increasing driving current,
multimode operation occurs at different level depending on the oxide diameter. In case (A), non conventional modal
behaviors will be presented and explained by the presence of specific oxide modes.
Thermal behaviors of the different devices have been compared. In case (A) and (C) we obtain a negative T0.
We will conclude on the different active materials in terms of performances with respect to 1300nm VCSEL
In the field of datacom, 10 Gbit/s sources with a good coupling in monomode silica fibers, whose
dispersion minimum occurs at 1.3 μm, are required. Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs)
emitting at 1.3 μm are key components in this field thanks to their compactness, their ability of being
operated at high frequencies, their low threshold current and their low beam divergence. Such devices
emitting in this wavelength range have been demonstrated using different materials such as strained
GaInAs/GaAs quantum wells [1-3], GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells [4-7], InAs/GaAs quantum dots [8,
9], and antimonides , using either molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) or metalorganic vapor phase
In the emerging field of photonics on CMOS, there is a need to bond efficient III-V laser sources on SOI wafers. These components should operate at small voltage and current, have a small footprint, and be
efficiently couple to Si waveguides, these latter being transparent above 1.1 μm. Since these
requirements resemble VCSEL properties, the development of VCSEL emitting above 1.1 μm could
therefore benefit to future new sources for photonics on silicon applications.
In this context we developed GaAs-based VCSELs emitting in the 1.1 μm - 1.3 μm range with
GaInAs/GaAs or GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells (QWs) as the active materials.
In the context of optical interconnection applications, we report on results obtained on strained InGaAs quantum well Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs). Our devices are top p-type DBR oxide-confined VCSEL, grown by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). These lasers exhibit low threshold currents and deliver up to 1.77 mW in continuous wave operation at room temperature. Fundamental mode continuous-wave lasing at wavelengths beyond 1300 nm at room temperature is reached for a 4 μm oxide diameter VCSEL. The particular design of the active layer based on a large detuning between the gain maximum and the cavity resonance gives our devices a very specific thermal and modal behaviour. Therefore, we study the spectral and spatial distributions of the transverse modes by near field scanning optical microscopy using a micropolymer tip at the end of an optical fibre.
We report results on strained InGaAs quantum well Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) for optical interconnection applications. The structure was grown by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and processed as top p-type DBR oxide-confined device. Our VCSELs exhibit low threshold currents and deliver up to 1.77 mW in continuous wave operation at room temperature. Fundamental mode continuous-wave lasing at wavelengths beyond 1300 nm is demonstrated at room temperature. The thermal behaviour of our devices is explained through the threshold current-temperature characteristics. Furthermore, the effective index model is used to understand the modal behaviour.