Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with strong apodized index modulations behave like an in-line Fabry-Perot interferometer and exhibit a series of narrow resonances in the short-wavelength portion of their transmission spectrum. These resonances have proven invaluable for detecting extremely small strains (30-femtostrain/√Hz level) or temperature changes (millidegreeC/√Hz level). The sensitivity of these fiber sensors is limited by the linewidth and peak transmission of the resonance used to interrogate the sensor, which are themselves limited by the intrinsic loss of the grating. In this work, significantly narrower and stronger resonances are demonstrated by introducing a small amount of optical gain in the FBG to offset the intrinsic loss and create a resonator with a much smaller net internal loss. The fiber Bragg grating is written in an Er-doped single-mode fiber and optically pumped to provide the required gain. The device reported here is a 6.5-mm grating with an AC index modulation of 1.59×10-3. With only 30 μW of pump power absorbed by the grating (32.6 mW launched), the fundamental resonance of the FBG was observed to narrow from 737 fm in the absence of pump to a record linewidth of 8.5 fm. The measured peak transmission of the resonance improved from ~-37 dB to -0.2 dB. A new model that predicts the slow-light resonance spectrum of a slow-light grating in the presence of optical gain is presented. This model is in good quantitative agreement with the measured evolution of the resonance linewidth as the pump power and the power of the laser that probes the resonance lineshape are varied.
Interest in compact, single-frequency fiber amplifiers has increased within many scientific and industrial applications. The main challenge is the onset of nonlinear effects, which limit their power scaling. Here we demonstrate a compact, highpower, single-frequency, polarization-maintaining, continuous-wave fiber amplifier using only one amplification stage. We developed the fiber amplifier using a master oscillator fiber amplifier architecture, where a low-noise, singlefrequency, solid-state laser operating at 1064 nm was used as a seed source. We evaluated the amplifier's performance by using several state-of-the-art, small-core, Ytterbium (Yb)-doped fibers, as well as an in-house-made, highly Yb-doped fiber. An output power of 82 W was achieved with no sign of stimulated Brillouin scattering. A good beam quality and a polarization extinction ratio (PER) of < 25 dB were achieved. The compact fiber amplifier can be a competitive alternative to multi stage designed fiber amplifiers.
A comprehensive study was performed to quantify anti-Stokes-fluorescence (ASF) cooling in fibers of various host compositions (telluride, fluorozirconates, fluorophosphates, phosphates, and chalcogenides) doped with Yb3+ or Er3+. Published expressions were used to calculate the maximum heat that can be extracted per unit length and time from a single-mode fiber in the limit of negligible absorptive loss, and the associated cooling efficiency. These expressions consider host- and ion-dependent parameters, namely the absorption and emission cross-section spectra, the radiative and nonradiative lifetimes, and the critical concentration for quenching. Using these expressions with published values for these parameters, the maximum extractable heat was calculated for a large-mode-area fiber (NA = 0.05) doped with either Yb3+ or Er3+ in a variety of hosts. The results show that for a given ion, the maximum heat that can be extracted depends strongly on the host due to the strong dependence of quenching on host composition. In contrast, the cooling efficiency (ratio of extracted heat to pump power absorbed) depends very weakly on the host. The cooling efficiency is also almost twice as high for Er3+ (average of 3.8%) than for Yb3+ (average of 2.2%) due to the larger gap between the pump and mean fluorescence energy in Er3+. Of the limited number of materials for which a full set of data was found in the literature, the highest extractable heat for Yb3+ is in phosphate (-51.5 mW/m), and for Er3+ is in chalcogenide (-10.3 mW/m). This work provides a simple methodology to evaluate the quantitative cooling performance of these and other rare-earth ions in any amorphous host, a procedure that should guide researchers in the selection of optimum materials for ASF cooling of fibers.
In this work we present a promising method for fabrication of conductive tracks on paper based substrates by laser assisted reduction of Graphene Oxide (GO). Printed electronics on paper based substrates is be coming more popular due to lower cost and recyclability. Fabrication of conductive tracks is of great importance where metal, carbon and polymer inks are commonly used. An emerging option is reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), which can be a good conductor. Here we have evaluated reduction of GO by using a 532 nm laser source, showing promising results with a decrease of sheet resistance from >100 M Ω/Sqr for unreduced GO down to 126 Ω/Sqr. without any observable damage to the paper substrates.
In this work we have investigated the use of laser sintering of different ink-jet printed nano-particle links (NPIs) on paper substrates. Laser sintering is shown to offer a fast and non-destructive way to produce paper based printed electronics. A continuous wave fiber laser source at 1064 nm is used and evaluated in combination with a galvo-scanning mirror system. A conductivity in order of 2.16 * 107 S/m is reached for the silver NPI structures corresponding to nearly 35 % conductivity compared to that of bulk silver and this is achieved without any observable damage to the paper substrate.
In this work we present a compact, nanosecond pulsed, single frequency, single stage Yb-doped fiber amplifier by using an overall fiber core diameter of 20 μm. The key component is a custom made, compact, ultra-low noise, single frequency ring-cavity solid state laser (SSL) at 1064 nm used as a master oscillator. The SSL can be designed to provide nanosecond pulses with pulse energies in the sub-mJ range. Our ultimate goal is to develop a compact linearly polarized, single frequency, nanosecond pulsed laser source in an all-fiber format. Short (less than 1m), highly Yb-doped fibers have been used in order to suppress non-linear effects.
A fiber laser operating at 1.94μm in pulsed regime has been developed in a MOPA configuration. The seed consists of a custom-developed board hosting a laser diode, whose current is modulated to achieve the desired pulse shape, duration and repetition rate. The pulses are amplified through a thulium-doped fiber amplifier pumped at 793 nm. The design of the amplifier stage has been performed by dynamic simulation of a rate-equations model and compared to the experimental measurements. Simulations and experimental measurements have exhibited comparable results, devising the realization of an effective pulsed laser system whose parameters can be easily tuned through the seed.