Stereoscopic augmented reality (AR) displays with a fixed focus plane suffer from visual discomfort due to vergenceaccommodation conflict (VAC). In this study, we propose a biocular dual-focal plane AR system. Two separate liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are placed at slightly different distances to a Fresnel relay lens such that virtual images of LCDs appear at 25 cm and 50 cm to the user. Both LCDs are totally viewed by both eyes, such that the rendered images are not parallax images for each eye. While the system is limited to two depths, it provides correct focus cues and natural blur effect in two distinct depths. This allows the user to distinguish virtual information, even when the virtual objects overlap and partially occlude in the axial direction. Displays are driven by a single computation unit and the objects in the virtual scene are distributed over the LCDs according to their depths. Field-of-view is 60 x 36 degrees and the eye-box is larger than 100 mm, which is comfortable enough for two-eye viewing.
We propose a method for computing realistic computer-generated holograms (CGHs) of three-dimensional (3D) objects, where we benefit from well-established graphical processing units (GPUs) and computer graphics techniques to handle occlusion, shading and parallax effects. The graphics render provides a 2D perspective image including occlusion and shading effects. We also extract the depth map data of the scene. The intensity values and 3D positions of object points are extracted by combining the rendered intensity image and the depth map (Z-buffer) image. We divide the depth range into several planes and quantize the depth value of 3D image points to the nearest plane. In the CGH computation part, we perform proper Fresnel transformations of these planar objects and sum them up to create the hologram corresponding to the particular viewpoint. We then repeat the entire procedure for all possible viewpoints and cover the hologram area. The experimental results show that the technique is capable of performing high quality reconstructions in a fast manner.
Holographic Displays (HDs) provide 3D images with all natural depth cues via computer generated holograms (CGHs) implemented on spatial light modulators (SLMs). HDs are coherent light processing systems based on interference and diffraction, thus they generally use laser light. However, laser sources are relatively expensive, available only at some particular wavelengths and difficult to miniaturize. In addition, highly coherent nature of laser light makes some undesired visual effects quite evident, such as speckle noise, interference due to stray light or defects of optical components. On the other hand, LED sources are available in variety of wavelengths, has small die size, and no speckle artifact. However, their finite spatial size introduce some degree of spatial incoherence in an HD system and degrade image resolution, which is the subject of the study in this paper. Our theoretical analysis indicates that the amount of resolution loss depends on the distance between hologram and SLM image planes. For some special configurations, the source size has no effect at all. We also performed experiments with different configurations using lasers and LEDs with different emission areas that vary from 50 μm to 200 μm, and determined Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) curves which agree well with our theoretical model. The results show that it is possible to find configurations where LEDs combined with pinholes almost preserve natural resolution limit of human eye while keeping the loss in light efficiency within tolerable limits.
Advanced imaging and display techniques are widely explored for realistic content capture and visualization but cannot fully follow the miniaturization and mobility trends in technology. Wide field-of-view displays require large surfaces and image capture requires separate installation of cameras having separate footprints and perspective views. Here we propose a novel, portable dual purpose passive screen that can simultaneously facilitate display and imaging with unprecedented features and performance. The optical design of the screen is presented. A prototype of the dual-purpose screen paired with a camera and a low power mobile projector is demonstrated. The developed screen has size of 28×21cm<sup>2</sup> to facilitate capture of eye contacted perspective view and displays high-quality images with high-brightness (>100cd/m<sup>2</sup> ) using only 15 lumen pico projector.
In this talk, we present the various types of 3D displays, head-mounted projection displays and wearable displays developed in our group using MEMS scanners, compact RGB laser light sources, and spatial light modulators.
In near to eye displays based on scanning laser projectors, retro-reflectors seem as convenient image relay components since they can ideally be placed at any location on the scanned beam path. In case of practical retro reflectors though, such as corner cube retro-reflectors (CCRs), the relayed image suffers from loss in quality and resolution due to the positional shift in the retro-reflected rays and the diffraction effects. We perform a wave optics simulation to analyze the image relay performance of a CCR. Our model assumes that the scanned spot of the projector is imaged by the CCR into an array of spots, which superpose and interfere to yield the effective scan spot seen by an eye looking at the CCR. The results indicate that the CCR results in a significant broadened spot size. Experimental results verify the simulation model in terms of achievable resolution and image quality.
An exact analysis of the scalar coherent monochromatic light field produced by a deflectable mirror array device is presented. The three-dimensional light field is related to the tilt angles of the mirrors. The first Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula is used to model the diffraction. The analysis is carried out based on the assumption that the mirrors can be tilted with continuously varying angles, so the field produced by a finite (discrete) set of possible tilt angles is included as a special case.
KEYWORDS: Diffraction, Mirrors, Detection and tracking algorithms, Near field diffraction, Associative arrays, Reconstruction algorithms, Chemical elements, Analog electronics, Optimization (mathematics), Algorithms
We investigated the problem of complex scalar monochromatic light field synthesis with a deflectable mirror array device (DMAD). First, an analysis of the diffraction field produced by the device upon certain configurations is given assuming Fresnel diffraction. Specifically, we derived expressions for the diffraction field given the parameters of the illumination wave and the tilt angles of the mirrors. The results of the analysis are used in later stages of the work to compute the samples of light fields produced by mirrors at certain points in space. Second, the light field synthesis problem is formulated as a linear constrained optimization problem assuming that mirrors of the DMAD can be tilted among a finite number of different tilt angles. The formulation is initially developed in the analog domain. Transformation to digital domain is carried out assuming that desired fields are originating from spatially bounded objects. In particular, we arrived at a <b>Dp</b> = <b>b </b>type of problem with
some constraints on <b>p</b>, where <b>D</b> and <b>b</b> are known, and <b>p</b> will be solved for and will determine the configuration
of the device. This final form is directly amenable to digital processing. Finally, we adapt and apply matching pursuit and simulated annealing algorithms to this digital problem. Simulations are carried out to illustrate the results. Simulated annealing performs successful synthesis when supplied with good initial conditions. However, we should come up with systematic approaches for providing good initial conditions to the algorithm. We do not have an appropriate strategy currently. Our results also suggest that simulated annealing achieves better results than MP. However, if only a part of the mirrors can be used, and the rest can be turned off, the performance of MP is acceptable and it turns out to be stable for different types of fields.