Electron beam (e-beam) curing techniques are known to improve etch and CD-SEM stability of 248 and 193nm resists. The effects of three different e-beam curing processes (standard, LT and ESC) on the methacrylate and hybrid type 193nm resists were studied with respect to resin chemistry changes, resist film shrinkage, pattern profiles, etch rates, and CD SEM stability. Both methacrylate and hybrid type 193nm resists lose carbonyl groups from the resins, with possibly a reduction in the free volume leading to improved etch resistance/selectivity. Methacrylate resist films shrink ca. 22-24% and hybrid resist films shrink ca. 23-27%. The LT process shrinks the least compared to the ESC and standard process. The ESC and LT processes were found to stabilize the patterns uniformly compared to the standard process. Etch rate, selectivity and resist surface roughness after etch of both methacrylate and hybrid resists were improved using the e-beam curing process. E-beam curing drastically reduces the CD SEM shrinkage (from ca. 15% to 2- 5%); however, considerable shrinkage occurs during the curing process itself.
A high performance 193 nm resist has been developed from a novel hybrid copolymer based on a cycloolefin-maleic anhydride and methacrylate (COMA/Methacrylate) polymer system. A variety of copolymers have been synthesized from t-butyl norbornene carboxylate (BNC), t-butyl tetracyclo [184.108.40.206.2,617,10]dodec-8-ene-3-carboxylate (BTCDC), and 5-[2-trifluoromethyl-2,1,1-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropyl]-2- norbornene (F1) with different types of methacrylate monomers and maleic anhydride (MA). The effect of the monomers and the ratio of monomers in the copolymer on lithographic performance and etch rate has been studied. Lithographic evaluation of some of these polymers has shown resolution down to 80 nm using conventional 193 nm illumination and standard development conditions, particularly for semi and fully isolated lines. This paper will report the chemistry of the polymer platform and relative advantages of having certain monomers in terms of lithographic performance and line edge roughness.
We have studied 193 nm contact hole resists in view of resist components, process conditions and optical settings. Sidewall roughness was improved by optimizing photoacid generators. Side lobes were eliminated by applying higher post exposure bake temperature or modification of polymers. The influence of optical settings, types of masks and mask bias was discussed with simulation and lithographic results and guidelines for better resolution and iso-dense bias were proposed. The optimized formulation, AZAX1050P has a high resolution combined with a large depth of focus and an iso- dense overlap window (130 nm(NA=0.63) DOF 0.38micrometers Exposure latitude 10%).