At wavelengths longwards of the sensitivity of silicon, hybrid structured mercury–cadmium–telluride (HgCdTe) detectors show promise to enable extremely precise radial velocity (RV) measurements of late-type stars. The most advanced near-infrared (NIR) detector commercially available is the HAWAII series (HxRG) of NIR detectors. While the quantum efficiency of such devices has been shown to be ≈90 % , the noise characteristics of these devices, and how they relate to RV measurements, have yet to be quantified. We characterize the various noise sources generated by H4RG arrays using numerical simulations. We present recent results using our end-to-end spectrograph simulator in combination with the HxRG Noise Generator, which emulates the effects of read noise, parameterized by white noise, correlated and uncorrelated pink (1 / f) noise, alternating column noise, and picture frame noise. The effects of nonlinear pixel response, dark current, persistence, and interpixel capacitance on RV precision are also considered. Our results have implications for RV error budgets and instrument noise floors that can be achieved with NIR Doppler spectrographs that utilize this kind of detector.
Single-mode fiber (SMF) spectrographs fed with adaptive optics (AO) offer a unique path for achieving extremely precise radial velocity (EPRV) measurements. We present a radial velocity (RV) error budget based on end-to-end numerical simulations of an instrument named iLocater that is being developed for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Representing the first AO-fed, SMF spectrograph, iLocater’s design is used to quantify and assess the relative advantages and drawbacks of precise Doppler time series measurements made at the diffraction limit. This framework can be applied for trade-study work to investigate the impact of instrument design decisions on systematic uncertainties encountered in the regime of sub-meter-per-second precision. We find that working at the diffraction-limit through the use of AO and SMF’s allows for high spectral resolution and improved instrument stability at the expense of limiting magnitude and longer integration times. Large telescopes equipped with AO alleviates the primary challenges of SMF spectrographs.
We are developing a stable and precise spectrograph for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) named “iLocater.” The instrument comprises three principal components: a cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph that operates in the YJ-bands (0.97-1.30 μm), a fiber-injection acquisition camera system, and a wavelength calibration unit. iLocater will deliver high spectral resolution (R~150,000-240,000) measurements that permit novel studies of stellar and substellar objects in the solar neighborhood including extrasolar planets. Unlike previous planet-finding instruments, which are seeing-limited, iLocater operates at the diffraction limit and uses single mode fibers to eliminate the effects of modal noise entirely. By receiving starlight from two 8.4m diameter telescopes that each use “extreme” adaptive optics (AO), iLocater shows promise to overcome the limitations that prevent existing instruments from generating sub-meter-per-second radial velocity (RV) precision. Although optimized for the characterization of low-mass planets using the Doppler technique, iLocater will also advance areas of research that involve crowded fields, line-blanketing, and weak absorption lines.
The demonstration of efficient single-mode fiber (SMF) coupling is a key requirement for the development of a compact, ultra-precise radial velocity (RV) spectrograph. iLocater is a next generation instrument for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) that uses adaptive optics (AO) to inject starlight into a SMF. In preparation for commissioning iLocater, a prototype SMF injection system was installed and tested at the LBT in the Y-band (0.970–1.065 μm). This system was designed to verify the capability of the LBT AO system as well as characterize on-sky SMF coupling efficiencies. SMF coupling was measured on stars with variable airmasses, apparent magnitudes, and seeing conditions for six half-nights using the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer. We present the overall optical and mechanical performance of the SMF injection system, including details of the installation and alignment procedure. A particular emphasis is placed on analyzing the instrument's performance as a function of telescope elevation to inform the final design of the fiber injection system for iLocater.
Existing planet-finding spectrometers are limited by systematic errors that result from their seeing-limited design. Of particular concern is the use of multi-mode fibers (MMFs), which introduce modal noise and accept significant amounts of background radiation from the sky. We present the design of a single-mode fiber-based acquisition camera for a diffraction-limited spectrometer named “iLocater." By using the “extreme" adaptive optics (AO) system of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), iLocater will overcome the limitations that prevent Doppler instruments from reaching their full potential, allowing precise radial velocity (RV) measurements of terrestrial planets around nearby bright stars. The instrument presented in this paper, which we refer to as the acquisition camera “demonstration system," will measure on-sky single-mode fiber (SMF) coupling efficiency using one of the 8.4m primaries of the LBT in fall 2015.