Nonlinear optical (NLO) processes in pi-electron organic and polymer systems have attracted considerable interest because their understanding has led onto many compelling technological promise as well as the discovery of new phenomena, new theoretical insights, and new materials and devices. In recent years, as the field has progressed toward technological applications, the main issues have focused on high-performance materials that comply with device manufacturing and end-use conditions. New challenges in materials synthesis are being presented. In has now been demonstrated on pilot plant scales that high-performance electro-optic polymer thin films can be routinely used in optoelectronic integrated circuit fabrication in existing microelectronic device manufacturing facilities. The key steps are standard, including spin coating, photolithography, etching, metallization, and multilayer assembly. Nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) have been incorporated into various NLO polymers and the optical properties of the nanocomposite films have been studied by femtosecond laser Z-scan instrumentation. Nanodevices have been fabricated by UV-assisted imprinting fabrication techniques. Photonic devices based on nanomaterials and ring resonators e.g., optical switches and dispersion compensators, are discussed.