Kinetic inductance bolometer (KIB) technology is a candidate for scalable submillimeter wave imaging systems, particularly suitable for person security screening applications. We have previously shown that the basic figures of merit are compatible with room-temperature radiometric imaging applications, and demonstrated the functionality of kilo-pixel detector arrays. In this article, we report on our imaging system based on 8208 KIBs organized on a 2D focal plane. We provide an overview on the basic components, including the detectors, optics, and cryogenics, and describe aspects relevant in system integration. Moreover, we demonstrate the capacity in actual concealed object detection by presenting datasets revealing metallic and dielectric objects hidden under the clothes of a test person.
We present a 220 GHz imaging radar prototype that has been developed in the European Defense Agency (EDA) project TIPPSI. The purpose of the development was to demonstrate short-range high-resolution 3D imaging for security applications at checkpoints, and to guide the development of stand-off real-time millimeter wave and sub-millimeter wave imaging systems for detection of larger objects at greater distances. An additional goal was to experimentally verify simulation techniques for active (sub)-mmw imaging systems, the verified simulation techniques can then be used to explore different system architectures. The 220 GHz imaging radar prototype consist of a flexible, mechanically scanned optical system that can support linear arrays of transmit/receive (TxRx) units up to 150 mm in length. The optical system is divided into two parts: A compact Dragonian system including the mechanical scanner that can be used as a stand-alone imager at reduced target distance and resolution, and a confocal system that can be added to achieve the full resolution of 1 cm x 1 cm x 1 cm at 4.5 m target distance. The field of view of the full resolution system is 70 cm x 70 cm. The front-end is currently populated by 4 TxRx units that are sparsely distributed along the 150 mm focal plane. The TxRx units operate in frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) mode and have a bandwidth of 24 GHz. Each TxRx unit use a single horn antenna and the transmit- and receive signals are generated and received using the same circuits which avoids the need of a duplexer. We will demonstrate high resolution 3D videos taken at 1 Hz frame rate and compare the individual images with simulations using electromagnetic simulators and character/clothes animation.
We have completed a 16-channel 340 GHz 3D imaging radar for next-generation airport security screening under the European Union funded CONSORTIS (Concealed Object Stand-Off Real-Time Imaging for Security) project. The radar maps a 1 x 1 x 1 m<sup>3</sup> sense volume with ~1 cm<sup>3</sup> voxel resolution at multi-hertz frame rates. The radar has been installed in the CONSORTIS system enclosure and integrated with a passenger control system and command module. The full system will ultimately also incorporate a dual-band passive submillimeter wave imager and automatic anomaly detection software for reliable, ethical detection of concealed objects. A large data collection trial on targets of interest has been conducted to support the development of automatic anomaly detection software. Initial threat detection analysis indicates promising results against aviation-relevant objects including simulant dielectric threat materials.
Proc. SPIE. 10189, Passive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XX
KEYWORDS: Radar, Transceivers, Beam steering, Extremely high frequency, Real time imaging, Optical sensors, Imaging systems, Image resolution, High dynamic range imaging, Radar imaging, 3D image processing
The EU FP7 project CONSORTIS (Concealed Object Stand-Off Real-Time Imaging for Security) is developing a demonstrator system for next generation airport security screening which will combine passive and active submillimeter wave imaging sensors. We report on the development of the 340 GHz 3D imaging radar which achieves high volumetric resolution over a wide field of view with high dynamic range and a high frame rate. A sparse array of 16 radar transceivers is coupled with high speed mechanical beam scanning to achieve a field of view of ~ 1 x 1 x 1 m<sup>3</sup> and a 10 Hz frame rate.
In the frame-work of the European project CONSORTIS, a stand-off system for concealed object detections working at submillimeter-wave frequencies is being developed. The system is required to perform real-time image acquisition over a large field of view at a short range using both an active and a passive sensor operating in the frequency range from 250 to 600 GHz. In this contribution, the main trade-offs associated with the quasi-optical system design are presented. The imaging distance is from 2 m to 5 m range with a spatial resolution lower than 2 cm. Focal plane arrays will be used to achieve high imaging frame rates. Two configurations are considered in CONSORTIS: a sparse array of active transceivers and incoherent passive staring array with a large number of elements. Both cases use mechanical scanning to achieve the required field of view. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the different trade-offs driving the quasi-optical design: from the mechanical scanner considerations to the optical beam quality required over the whole field of view. This analysis starts from the fundamental limitations of the quasi-optical mechanical systems. The limitations of the optics are discussed considering a canonical elliptical reflector as a reference. After this fundamental analysis, we compare the performances of several practical standard implementations, based on dual-reflectors and lenses, with canonical geometries. It is shown that, at short ranges, the main limitation of the optical system is the poor beam quality associated with the wide angular field of view and none of the standard implementation fulfills the requirements. In the last section, a technique to overcome this limitation is investigated. In particular, the use of optics with oversized reflectors can significantly improve the performance over a larger field of view if the coma aberrations are limited by a good angular filter.