Unconventional wavefront sensing strategies are being developed to provide alternatives for measuring the wave-front deformation of a laser beam propagating through strong turbulence and/or along a horizontal path. In this paper we present a modified wavefront-sensorless (WFS) adaptive optical (AO) system where the well-known stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm is extended with a-priori knowledge of the spatial and temporal statistics related to atmospheric turbulence. Here, a modal implementation of the correction algorithm allows us to exploit modal wavefront decomposition to decrease SPGD optimization complexity. We also propose an implementation of a modal decomposition based on Karhunen-Lo eve polynomials instead of the common Zernike polynomials. Appropriate calibration of the deformable mirror is also presented. Performance evaluation of this modified wavefront-sensorless AO system is carried out in a realistic simulated turbulence environment and the results are compared against the traditional, zonal SPGD algorithms.
In this paper we present a new model for describing the turbulence-induced fading that uses the representation
of the phase in the aperture plane as a collection of random “cells”. This model serves as input to calculate the
probability density function of fading intensity. The model has two parameters: phase variance and number of
wavefront cells . We derive expressions for the signal-to-noise ratio in the presence of atmospheric turbulence and
adaptive optics compensation. We estimate symbol error probabilities for M-ary phase shift keying and evaluate
the performance of coherent receivers as a function of the normalized aperture and the number of actuators on
the deformable mirror or the number of compensated modes. We perform numerical simulations of the fading
intensity for different uncompensated and compensated scenarios and we compare the results with the proposed
Unconventional wavefront sensing strategies are being developed to provide alternatives for measuring the wavefront deformation of a laser beam propagating through strong turbulence and/or along a horizontal-path. In this paper we present results from two “wavefront-sensorless” approaches: stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) and its modal version (M-SPGD). We compare the performance of both algorithms through experimental measurements under emulated dynamic atmospheric turbulence by using the coupling efficiency in a single mode fiber as performance metric. We estimate probability density function of coupling efficiency for free-space optical links using adaptive optics (AO) as a function of key parameters such us turbulence strength and AO loop rate. We demonstrate faster convergence rate of the M-SPGD algorithm as compared to the traditional SPGD, although classic SPGD achieves higher correction. Additionally, we constrain the main temporal requirements of an AO system using wavefront-sensorless architectures.
In this paper we introduce the use of Karhunen-Loève functions as a basis set to decompose atmospheric phase aberrations in a digital holographic wavefront sensor (HWS). We show that the intermodal crosstalk when using Karhunen-Loève functions is reduced in comparison to the Zernike decomposition. Additionally, the sensor’s response showed an improved linearity and better robustness to scintillation. Intermodal crosstalk remains a significant problem for this sensor but operation of an adaptive optics system based on HWS is less challenging when using Karhunen-Loève functions instead of Zernike polynomials.
In this work we present a practical, experimental analysis of the effects of adaptive optics compensation on the performance of free-space coherent optical receivers. In order to fulfill this objective, we have developed a laboratory test bed for simulating atmospheric turbulence using Kolmogorov statistics; we have implemented a digital-signal-processing-based phase shift keying heterodyne coherent receiver; and we have integrated a compact module operating a low-cost adaptive optics system that applies modal and zonal wavefront correction. We have checked our experimental results against previously reported analytical models describing the performance of coherent receivers using atmospheric compensation techniques.