The direct ophthalmoscope, a handheld device gives a highly magnified image of the retina. However, the sustainability of power source and cost are a limitation considering the usage demand. We compared a low-cost solar-powered Arclight ophthalmoscope with a standard ophthalmoscope Heine K180 in terms of ease of examination, usage, field of view, color rendition and patient comfort. Two clinically trained optometrists examined 28 patients and graded the ease of retinal examination, ease of use and assessed cup-disc ratio, which is an important diagnostic parameter for glaucoma, patient comfort and length of examination (scale 1-4). The examiners had good agreement for all assessments. Of a total of 78 examinations, only 8(10.3%) did not result in cup-disc ratio measurement in the undilated pupil condition using both devices. Ease of use was scored higher for Arclight than Heine but this was not statistically significant. In conditions like large discs, the Arclight resulted in easier examinations due to its larger field of view. Color rendition was better with the Heine device. In undilated pupils, the patients often reported that there was significant glare with Heine, however, post-dilation, they reported more glare with Arclight compared to Heine (73% versus 55%). The performance of Arclight was comparable to that of Heine and can be considered a low-cost alternative to the standard direct ophthalmoscope especially in large-scale patient examinations in developing countries where cost might be a factor.
The project is collaboration between two scientific societies, the Optical Society of America (OSA) and SPIE - The
International Society for Optical Engineering and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). The program is
designed to bring science education enrichment to thousands of underrepresented middle school students in more than
ten states, including female and minority students, who typically have not been the beneficiaries of science and
engineering resources and investments. HOO provides each teacher with up to six activity modules, each containing
enough materials for up to 30 students to participate in 6-8 hours of hands-on optics-related activities. Sample activities,
developed by education specialists at NOAO, include building kaleidoscopes and telescopes, communicating with a
beam of light, and a hit-the-target laser beam challenge. Teachers engage in two days of training and, where possible, are
partnered with a local optics professional (drawn from the local rosters of SPIE and OSA members) who volunteers to
spend time with the teacher and students as they explore the module activities. Through these activities, students gain
experience and understanding of optics principles, as well as learning the basics of inquiry, critical thinking, and
problem solving skills involving optics, and how optics interfaces with other disciplines. While the modules were
designed for use in informal after- school or weekend sessions, the number of venues has expanded to large and small
science centers, Boys and Girls Clubs, Girl Scouts, summer camps, family workshops, and use in the classroom.
Hands-On Optics (HOO) is a collaborative four-year National Science Foundation fundedprogram (Principal Investigator A. Johnson) designed to create a sustainable science education program to excite students about science by actively engaging them in optics activities. It will reach underrepresented middle school students in after-school programs and at hands-on science centers across the United States. The project creates and distributes educational modules and provides professional development for educators and optics resource volunteers.
The UNESCO Active Learning in Optics and Photonics project is designed for the benefit of teachers of introductory university physics from developing countries. Initial implementation has taken place in two African nations, Ghana and Tunisia. The training curriculum includes student materials to teach topics in geometrical and physical optics in an active way with a high level of student involvement in the learning process. The curriculum makes use of simple, inexpensive materials. A conceptual learning assessment instrument is being developed as part of the project. Follow-up activities are planned. Experiences of the international group of workshop trainers are reported.
Hands-On Optics: Making an Impact with Light (HOO) is a three-year informal science program designed to bring optics education to tens of thousands of underserved students nationwide. SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering and the Optical Society of America (OSA), along with Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), were awarded a $1.7 million grant from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in 2003 to implement this national science enrichment program intended for children in middle school (approximately 11 to 14 years old).
Hands-On Optics (HOO) is a collaborative three-year program to create and sustain a unique, national, informal science education program to excite students about science by actively engaging them in optics activities. It will reach underrepresented middle school cohorts in science and technology, and connect with their parents, teachers, school districts and communities.