The temporal error is the main problem for adaptive optical systems operating in the atmosphere. One way to solve this problem is to optimize the adaptive optics system by predictive control algorithms. In study the adaptive optical system installed on the small-aperture telescope with the predictive algorithm are developed. The predictive algorithm uses measurement of center gravity of light intensity at subapertures of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor has been developed. In results it not depends on the type and design of the adaptive mirror. For implementation the Shack- Hartmann wavefront sensor measuring phase distortion, atmospheric turbulence, and transverse wind velocity are created. The design of the wavefront sensor allows replacement of the microlens array with different sizes, focal lengths and operated in wide range of phase aberrations. As a result, the adaptive optics system measure the level of optical atmospheric turbulence for replace the microlens array and it to operated in different turbulent atmospheric conditions.
One of the approach to calculate the characteristics of the air refractive index fluctuations along line of sight for multiconjugated adaptive optics is based on the triangulating the wavefront distortions or/and scintillation amplitudes analysis. The description of the experiments aimed to measurements of the wavefront distortions and scintillation fluctuations is given. The scheme for recovering the optical distortions (wavefront) at the different heights is discussed. The results of changes of the wavefront distortions measured by Shack-Hartmann sensor in the spaced regions of images are discussed. The results obtained may be used for estimation of the real amplitudes of the wavefront distortions in crossed optical beams at the different heights using such method as SDimm+[ 5].