Land spatial statistical characteristics obtained experimentally and from the topographical maps are analyzed. It is shown that the probability density function of backscattered signal is determined by the temporal fluctuations and the spatial fluctuations because of scattered areas replacement. The experimental spatial statistical characteristics of micro-scale roughness (rms height, the slope distributions, and autocorrelation functions) are presented. It was shown that for mathematical description of surface for different fields it is better to use the fractal process. The spatial statistics of land backscattering for surfaces without vegetation is determined by the distributions of surface local slopes. The roughness height and slope distributions for different terrain types are presented that are obtained from electronic topographical maps. The method of clutter map development is analyzed, it is shown its great dependence on radar and target heights.
The technique of radar clutter map elaboration for land backscattering at the frequency band of 3 - 100 GHz for small grazing angles is proposed taken into consideration the terrain relief and vegetation. The sources and methods for receiving of the initial data for modeling are analyzed and described. A brief description of operation principle and area of application of specially designed neural structure (consolidation tree) in the model is presented.