Electronic structure of functional region of the interband cascade infrared photodetector designed to operate with cut-off wavelength of ~10.7 μm is calculated using second nearest neighbor sp<sup>3</sup>s* tight binding model with spin-orbit interactions. The effective bandgaps and alignment of the band edges are presented. Lattice mismatch of each region to the GaSb substrate is determined. The influence of InAs incorporation into the InSb interfacial layer is investigated. It is shown that up to 5% InAs addition to InSb interface in InAs/GaSb superlattice absorber is allowed if efficient carrier transport is to be kept. Furthermore, interface of up to x=2% InAs<sub>x</sub>Sb<sub>1-x</sub> can be used in the proposed InAs/AlSb superlattice intraband relaxation region to keep its proper operation.
Procedure of chemical preparation of GaSb and particularly wet etching of GaSb surface is still optimized. Properties of surface layers depend on applied etchant. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) is a very sensitive and allows estimation both thickness and layer stechiometry. Best process, which gives thinnest layer, can be determined directly from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurement. Optical properties of surface GaSb oxide often differ from described by Zolner. To determine thickness and refraction index of thin layers optical model of investigated structure is required. By comparing results of calculations for different models best one was found. Layers thicknesses and approximate refraction indices were determined for the surface layers after different etching.
The effects of various chemical treatments on (100) GaSb surface with the aim to develop procedures of polishing of GaSb substrates, surface preparation prior to LPE growth, metal and dielectric deposition, fabrication of patterns have been examined. We show that chemomechanical polishing in Br<SUB>2</SUB> - ethylene glycol followed by anodic oxidation and oxide removal enables to fabricate damage free GaSb surface with the roughness of about 1.5 nm. Surface treatment in 30 HCL-1HNO<SUB>3</SUB> followed by 5%HCL etch gives the best results for surface cleaning prior to metal deposition. The optimum pre-epitaxial treatment includes the use of 1M Na<SUB>2</SUB>S solution and H<SUB>2</SUB> anneal. For features patterning 60HCL-1H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB>-1H<SUB>2</SUB>O enables etching at rate of approximately 4 micrometers /min, however, to achieve highly anisotropic etching of small size features the use of Ccl<SUB>4</SUB>/H<SUB>2</SUB> plasma is the most suitable.
The paper reports on the design and fabrication of LPE-grown (formula available in paper) heterojunction photodetectors operating in the 2-2.4 micrometers wavelength region. Experiments on LPE growth of high-x- content quaternaries as well as optimization of device processing has been carried out. LPE growth at Tapproximately equals 530<SUP>DEG</SUP>C enabled obtaining lattice matched heterostructures with 19% indium in the active layer In (formula available in paper) and photodetectors with (lambda) <SUB>co</SUB>=2.25micrometers . By increasing the temperature of epitaxial growth to 590<SUP>DEGC In (formula available in paper)heterostructures (with 23%indium content</SUP> suitable for photodetectors with (lambda) <SUB>co</SUB>=2.35 micrometers have been obtained. Mesa-type photodiodes were fabricated by RIE in Ccl (formula available in paper) plasma and passivated electrochemically in (formula available in paper). These devices are characterized by differential resistance up to (formula available in paper) and the detectivity in the range (formula available in paper), in dependence on the photodiode active area cutoff wavelength.
LPE growth of Ga<SUB>1-x</SUB>Al<SUB>x</SUB>As<SUB>y</SUB>Sb<SUB>1-y</SUB> on (100) GaSb substrates has been investigated for wide range of aluminum content in the melt, x<SUB>Al</SUB><SUP>1</SUP>=0.01 - 0.06, various growth temperatures, and various amount of supersaturation. Epilayers were characterized by means of XRD, TEM, EPXMA, and SIMS. It has been found that LPE growth at Tapproximately equals 530<SUP>0</SUP>C produces good quality Ga<SUB>1-x</SUB>Al<SUB>x</SUB>As<SUB>y</SUB>Sb<SUB>1-y</SUB> layers with Al content in the solid up to x equals0.24 and latice mismatch (delta) a/a not exceeding 5*10<SUP>-4</SUP>. As for the growth of higher aluminum content alloys at higher temperatures Tequals590 - 600<SUP>0</SUP>C, good results have been obtained unless the Al content in the melt does not exceed x<SUB>Al</SUB><SUP>1</SUP>equals0.02 giving perfectly matched Ga<SUB>1- x</SUB>Al<SUB>x</SUB>As<SUB>y</SUB>Sb<SUB>1-y</SUB> epilayers with Al content in the solid by up to x equals0.3. By introducing an interlayer, either of the lattice matched Ga<SUB>0.91</SUB>In<SUB>0.09</SUB>As<SUB>0.08</SUB>Sb<SUB>0.92</SUB> or Ga<SUB>0.70</SUB>Al<SUB>0.30</SUB>As<SUB>0.03</SUB>Sb<SUB>0.97</SUB>, LPE growth from the melt with Al content up to x<SUB>Al</SUB><SUP>1</SUP>equals0.06 becomes possible and enables fabrication of Ga<SUB>1-x</SUB>Al<SUB>x</SUB>As<SUB>y</SUB>Sb<SUB>1-y</SUB> layers with Al content in the solid as high as xequals0.62. Ga<SUB>1-x</SUB>Al<SUB>x</SUB>As<SUB>y</SUB>Sb<SUB>1-y</SUB> layers obtained from the melt with x<SUB>Al</SUB><SUP>1</SUP>equals0.04 were characterized by lattice mismatch (Delta) a/aequals(8-9)-10<SUP>-4</SUP>, an increase of (Delta) a/a to 2.2*10<SUP>-3</SUP> was observed for epilayers obtained from the melt with x<SUB>Al</SUB><SUP>1</SUP>equals0.06.